Short Essay On Pressure Belts

This article is about the weather phenomenon. For other uses, see Tradewind.

The trade winds are the prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the tropics, within the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, in the lower section of the troposphere near the Earth's equator. The trade winds blow predominantly from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere and from the southeast in the Southern Hemisphere, strengthening during the winter and when the Arctic oscillation is in its warm phase. Trade winds have been used by captains of sailing ships to cross the world's oceans for centuries, and enabled colonial expansion into the Americas and trade routes to become established across the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

In meteorology, the trade winds act as the steering flow for tropical storms that form over the Atlantic, Pacific, and southern Indian Oceans and make landfall in North America, Southeast Asia, and Madagascar and eastern Africa, respectively. Trade winds also transport African dust westward across the Atlantic Ocean into the Caribbean Sea, as well as portions of southeastern North America. Shallow cumulus clouds are seen within trade wind regimes, and are capped from becoming taller by a trade wind inversion, which is caused by descending air aloft from within the subtropical ridge. The weaker the trade winds become, the more rainfall can be expected in the neighboring landmasses.

History[edit]

See also: Age of Discovery, Volta do Mar, and Age of sail

The term trade winds originally derives from the early fourteenth century late Middle English word 'trade,' meaning "path" or "track."[1] The Portuguese recognized the importance of the trade winds (then the Volta do mar, meaning in Portuguese "turn of the sea" but also "return from the sea") in navigation in both the north and south Atlantic ocean as early as the 15th century.[2] From West Africa, the Portuguese had to sail away from continental Africa, that is, to west and northwest. They could then turn northeast, to the area around the Azores islands, and finally east to mainland Europe. They also learned that to reach South Africa, they needed to go far out in the ocean, head for Brazil, and around 30°S go east again. Following the African coast southbound means upwind in the Southern hemisphere. In the Pacific ocean, the full wind circulation, which included both the trade wind easterlies and higher-latitude Westerlies, was unknown to Europeans until Andres de Urdaneta's voyage in 1565.[3]

The captain of a sailing ship seeks a course along which the winds can be expected to blow in the direction of travel.[4] During the Age of Sail, the pattern of prevailing winds made various points of the globe easy or difficult to access, and therefore had a direct effect on European empire-building and thus on modern political geography. For example, Manila galleons could not sail into the wind at all.[3]

By the 18th century the importance of the trade winds to England's merchant fleet for crossing the Atlantic Ocean had led both the general public and etymologists to identify the name with a later meaning of 'trade', "(foreign) commerce".[5] Between 1847 and 1849, Matthew Fontaine Maury collected enough information to create wind and current charts for the world's oceans.[6]

Cause[edit]

See also: Air mass, Hadley cell, Humidity, Intertropical Convergence Zone, Monsoon, Monsoon trough, Near-equatorial trough, and Prevailing winds

As part of the Hadley cell, surface air flows toward the equator while the flow aloft is towards the poles. A low-pressure area of calm, light variable winds near the equator is known as the doldrums,[7] near-equatorial trough,[8] intertropical front, or the Intertropical Convergence Zone.[9] When located within a monsoon region, this zone of low pressure and wind convergence is also known as the monsoon trough.[10] Around 30° in both hemispheres, air begins to descend toward the surface in subtropical high-pressure belts known as subtropical ridges. The subsident (sinking) air is relatively dry because as it descends, the temperature increases, but the absolute humidity remains constant, which lowers the relative humidity of the air mass. This warm, dry air is known as a superior air mass and normally resides above a maritime tropical (warm and moist) air mass. An increase of temperature with height is known as a temperature inversion. When it occurs within a trade wind regime, it is known as a trade wind inversion.[11]

The surface air that flows from these subtropical high-pressure belts toward the Equator is deflected toward the west in both hemispheres by the Coriolis effect.[12] These winds blow predominantly from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere and from the southeast in the Southern Hemisphere.[13] Because winds are named for the direction from which the wind is blowing,[14] these winds are called the northeasterly trade winds in the Northern Hemisphere and the southeasterly trade winds in the Southern Hemisphere. The trade winds of both hemispheres meet at the doldrums.[7]

As they blow across tropical regions, air masses heat up over lower latitudes due to more direct sunlight. Those that develop over land (continental) are drier and hotter than those that develop over oceans (maritime), and travel northward on the western periphery of the subtropical ridge.[15] Maritime tropical air masses are sometimes referred to as trade air masses.[16] The one region of the Earth which has an absence of trade winds is the north Indian ocean.[17]

Weather effects[edit]

Clouds which form above regions within trade wind regimes are typically composed of cumulus which extend no more than 4 kilometres (13,000 ft) in height, and are capped from being taller by the trade wind inversion.[18] Trade winds originate more from the direction of the poles (northeast in the Northern Hemisphere, southeast in the Southern Hemisphere) during the cold season, and are stronger in the winter than the summer.[19] As an example, the windy season in the Guianas, which lie at low latitudes in South America, occurs between January and April.[20] When the phase of the Arctic oscillation (AO) is warm, trade winds are stronger within the tropics. The cold phase of the AO leads to weaker trade winds.[21] When the trade winds are weaker, more extensive areas of rain fall upon landmasses within the tropics, such as Central America.[22]

During mid-summer in the Northern Hemisphere (July), the westward-moving trade winds south of the northward-moving subtropical ridge expand northwestward from the Caribbean sea into southeastern North America (Florida and Gulf Coast). When dust from the Sahara moving around the southern periphery of the ridge travels over land, rainfall is suppressed and the sky changes from a blue to a white appearance which leads to an increase in red sunsets. Its presence negatively impacts air quality by adding to the count of airborne particulates.[23] Although the Southeast USA has some of the cleanest air in North America, much of the African dust that reaches the United States affects Florida.[24] Since 1970, dust outbreaks have worsened due to periods of drought in Africa. There is a large variability in the dust transport to the Caribbean and Florida from year to year.[25] Dust events have been linked to a decline in the health of coral reefs across the Caribbean and Florida, primarily since the 1970s.[26]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

The westerlies (blue arrows) and trade winds (yellow and brown arrows)
3D map showing Hadley cells in relationship to trade winds on the surface.

The distribution of atmospheric pressure across the latitudes is termed global horizontal distribution of pressure. Its main feature is its zonal character known as pressure belts.   On the earth’s surface, there are seven pressure belts. They are the Equatorial Low, the two Sub-Tropical highs, the two Sub-polar lows, and the two Polar highs. Except the Equatorial low. the others form matching pairs in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.   There is a pattern of alternate high and low pressure belts over the earth. This is due to the spherical shape of the earth—different parts of the earth are heated unequally. The Equatorial region receives great amount of heat throughout the year. Warm air being light, the air at the Equator rises, creating a low pressure.   At the poles the cold heavy air causes high pressure to be created/formed. It is also due to the rotation of the earth. In the Sub-Polar region around latitudes 60° to 65° North and South of the Equator, the rotation of the earth pushes up the bulk of the air towards the Equator, creating a low pressure belt in this region.  

(i)  Equatorial Low Pressure Belts

This low pressure belt extends from 0 to 5° North and South of Equator. Due to the vertical rays of the sun here, there is intense heating. The air therefore, expands and rises as convection current causing a low pressure to develop here. This low pressure belt is also called as doldrums, because it is a zone of total calm without any breeze.  

(ii)  Sub-Tropical High Pressure Belts

At about 30°North and South of Equator lies the area where the ascending equatorial air currents descend. This area is thus an area of high pressure. It is also called as the Horse latitude. Winds always blow from high pressure to low pressure. So the winds from sub tropical region blow towards Equator as Trade winds and another wind blows towards Sub-Polar Low-Pressure as Westerlies.  

(iii) Circum-Polar Low Pressure Belts

These belts located between 60° and 70° in each hemisphere are known as Circum-Polar Low Pressure Belts. In the Sub-Tropical region the descending air gets divided into two parts. One part blows towards the Equatorial Low Pressure Belt. The other part blows towards the Circum- Polar Low Pressure Belt. This zone is marked by ascent of warm Sub-Tropical air over cold polar air blowing from poles. Due to earth’s rotation, the winds surrounding the Polar region blow towards the Equator. Centrifugal forces operating in this region create the low pressure belt appropriately called Circum-Polar Low Pressure Belt. This region is marked by violent storms in winter.  

(iv)  Polar High Pressure Areas

At the North and South Poles, between 70° to 90° North and South, the temperatures are always extremely low. The cold descending air gives rise to high pressures over the Poles. These areas of Polar high pressure are known as the Polar Highs. These regions are characterised by permanent Ice Caps.

SHIFTING OF PRESSURE BELTS

If the earth had not been inclined towards the sun, the pressure belts, as described above, would have been as they are. But it is not so, because the earth is inclined 23 1/2° towards the sun. On account of this inclination, differences in heating of the continents, oceans and pressure conditions in January and July vary greatly. January represents winter season and July, summer season in the Northern Hemisphere. Opposite conditions prevail in the Southern Hemisphere.   When the sun is overhead on the Tropic of Cancer (21 June) the pressure belts shift 5° northward and when it shines vertically overhead on Tropic of Capricorn (22 December), they shift 5° southward from their original position. The shifting of the pressure belts cause seasonal changes in the climate, especially between latitudes 30° and 40° in both hemispheres. In this region the Mediterranean type of climate is experienced because of shifting of permanent belts southwards and northwards with the overhead position of the sun. During winters Westerlies prevail and cause rain. During summers dry Trade Winds blow offshore and are unable to give rainfall in these regions.   When the sun shines vertically over the Equator on 21st March and 23rd September (the Equinoxes), the pressure belts remain balanced in both the hemispheres.

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