Am Radio Transmitter Science Buddies Bibliography

Time RequiredAverage (6-10 days)
Material Availability Specialty items
CostAverage ($50 - $100)
SafetyNo issues


Have you ever wondered how an AM radio station works? In this project you will learn the basics of how your favorite songs are transmitted by a radio station, by building your own simple AM radio transmitter. You will learn the basics of how a transmitter works, and how you are able to tune to your favorite station and listen to music.


The goal of this project is to build a simple AM radio transmitter and to test its broadcast range with a radio receiver.


Written by Niraj Subba,

Edited by Andrew Olson, PhD, and Ben Finio, PhD, Science Buddies


Cite This Page

MLA Style

Science Buddies Staff. "Make Your Own Low-Power AM Radio Transmitter" Science Buddies. Science Buddies, 30 Jan. 2018. Web. 10 Mar. 2018 <>

APA Style

Science Buddies Staff. (2018, January 30). Make Your Own Low-Power AM Radio Transmitter. Retrieved March 10, 2018 from

Last edit date: 2018-01-30

Share your story with Science Buddies!

Yes,I Did This Project! Please log in (or create a free account) to let us know how things went.

Are you planning to do a project from Science Buddies?

Come back and tell us about your project using the “I Did This Project” link for the project you choose.

You’ll find a link to “I Did This Project” on every project on the Science Buddies website so don’t forget to share your story!

Got itRemind me later


Electromagnetic radiation is all around us. For example, light is electromagnetic radiation and so are x-rays. When you listen to an AM or FM radio station, the sound that you hear is transmitted to your radio by the station using electromagnetic radiation as a carrier—radio waves. Electromagnetic radiation is a propagating wave in space with electric and magnetic components. In a vacuum, electromagnetic waves travel at the speed of light.

Electromagnetic waves such as light, x-rays, and radio waves are classified by their frequency or wavelength. For example, electromagnetic radiation at frequencies between about 430 terahertz (THz) and 750 THz can be detected by the human eye and are perceived as light. Electromagnetic radiation at frequencies ranging from 3 hertz (Hz) to 300 gigahertz (GHz) are classified as radio waves. Radio waves are divided into many sub-classifications based on frequency. AM radio signals are carried by medium frequency (MF) radio waves (530 to 1710 kilohertz (kHz) in North America, 530 to 1610 kHz elsewhere), and FM radio signals are carried by very high frequency (VHF) radio waves (88 to 108 megahertz (MHz)).

So how does a radio wave carry sounds such as voice or music to your radio receiver? The radio station broadcasts a carrier wave at the station's assigned frequency. The carrier wave is modulated (varied) in direct proportion to the signal (e.g., voice or music) that is to be transmitted. The modulation can change either the amplitude or the frequency of the carrier wave. The "AM" in AM radio stands for "amplitude modulation," and the "FM" in FM radio stands for "frequency modulation." A radio receiver removes the carrier wave and restores the original signal (the voice or music). Figure 1 shows graphically how amplitude modulation works.

Figure 1. Illustration of amplitude modulation of a carrier wave by a signal. The top diagram shows a carrier wave at a set frequency and amplitude (green) and a signal to be broadcast (red). The signal is used to modulate the amplitude of the carrier wave. The bottom diagram shows the resulting output signal (blue). Note how the peaks of the output trace (its envelope) follow the form of the input signal. (Wikipedia contributors, 2006a)

In this project, you will make a simple low-power broadcast circuit, using a crystal oscillator integrated circuit and an audio transformer. You can connect the circuit to the headphone jack of a portable music player (e.g. mp3, CD or cassette tape player). You'll see that you can receive the signal through the air with an AM radio receiver. Although the circuits used in radio stations for AM broadcasting are far more complicated, this nevertheless gives a basic idea of the concept behind a broadcast transmitter. Plus it is a lot of fun when you actually have it working!

Before we get into the step-by-step instructions for building the circuit, we'll first go over the circuit design. Figure 2 shows the connections you need to make to build the circuit. The transformer isolates the music player from the rest of the circuit, couples the music player and the crystal oscillator, and "steps up" the signal voltage from the music player in proportion to the ratio of 1 kΩ to 8 Ω. The stepped up signal from the secondary coil of the transformer modulates the power to the oscillator chip (+ power at pin 14 and - power at pin 7). A wire connected to the oscillator output (pin 8) serves as the antenna for broadcasting the amplitude-modulated radio wave.

Figure 2. Simple AM transmitter circuit diagram. Note: the pins of the crystal oscillator are numbered according to standard positions for a 14-pin integrated circuit.

To do this project, you will need to know how to use a solderless breadboard. If you have never used a breadboard before you may want to take a look at the Science Buddies reference How to Use a Breadboard before you start this science project.

Terms and Concepts

To do this project, you should do research that enables you to understand the following terms and concepts:

  • Electromagnetic radiation and waves
  • Electromagnetic spectrum
  • Wave model
  • Speed of light
  • Wavelength
  • Frequency
  • Amplitude
  • Crystal oscillator
  • Transformer
  • Amplitude modulation
  • Heterodyne


This site has a cool way of explaining the electromagnetic phenomena of electromagnetic radiation and waves:

Another electromagnetic site:

Amplitude modulation:

Information on crystal oscillators:

Information on AM (medium wave) radio:

News Feed on This Topic

Note: A computerized matching algorithm suggests the above articles. It's not as smart as you are, and it may occasionally give humorous, ridiculous, or even annoying results! Learn more about the News Feed


, ,

Materials and Equipment

To do this experiment you will need the following materials and equipment. Most of the electronic components are available from Jameco Electronics.

  • Music-playing device with a 3.5 mm audio output jack like a smartphone, mp3 player, or computer
  • An AM radio for listening to your broadcasted signal
  • Solderless breadboard, part #20601
  • 4xAA battery holder, part #216152
  • AA batteries (4), part #198707
  • 1 MHz "full can" crystal oscillator, part #27861
  • Optional: a second oscillator in the AM broadcast band (0.53 to 1.71 MHz in North America, 0.53 to 1.61 MHz elsewhere). Currently Jameco does not stock a second oscillator in this band, but you can purchase a 1.2288 MHz oscillator from Mouser Electronics
  • 1000 Ω to 8 Ω audio transformer, part #2210511
  • Jumper wire kit, part #2127718
  • 3.5 mm stereo cable, part #228494
  • Wire strippers (recommended, although if necessary you can use scissors or a sharp knife), multiple options available

Disclaimer: Science Buddies occasionally provides information (such as part numbers, supplier names, and supplier weblinks) to assist our users in locating specialty items for individual projects. The information is provided solely as a convenience to our users. We do our best to make sure that part numbers and descriptions are accurate when first listed. However, since part numbers do change as items are obsoleted or improved, please send us an email if you run across any parts that are no longer available. We also do our best to make sure that any listed supplier provides prompt, courteous service. Science Buddies does participate in affiliate programs with Home Science Tools,, Carolina Biological, and Jameco Electronics. Proceeds from the affiliate programs help support Science Buddies, a 501(c)(3) public charity. If you have any comments (positive or negative) related to purchases you've made for science fair projects from recommendations on our site, please let us know. Write to us at

Remember Your Display Board Supplies

Remember Your Display Board Supplies

Experimental Procedure

Note Before Beginning: This science fair project requires you to hook up one or more devices in an electrical circuit. Basic help can be found in the Electronics Primer. However, if you do not have experience in putting together electrical circuits you may find it helpful to have someone who can answer questions and help you troubleshoot if your project is not working. A science teacher or parent may be a good resource. If you need to find another mentor, try to find someone who has hobbies like robotics, electronics, or building and fixing computers. You may also need to work your way up to this project by starting with an electronics project that has a lower level of difficulty.

Building the Circuit

Now let's build the circuit! If you do not know how to use a solderless breadboard, see the Science Buddies reference How to Use a Breadboard before you start.

  1. Connect the transformer, crystal oscillator, and jumper wires to the breadboard as shown in Figure 3.
    1. The transformer has 6 pins. Orient the transformer so the side with a "P" printed on it is facing to the right. Then insert the six pins into holes E5, E7, E9, F5, F7, and F9 as shown in Figure 3.
    2. The crystal oscillator has 4 pins. Orient the oscillator so the writing is facing to the left. Then insert the pins into holes E16, E22, F16, and F22, as shown in Figure 3.
    3. Use a jumper wire to connect hole J5 to the left-side power bus (the bus next to the red line). Note: you do not have to use a red jumper wire, you can use any jumper wire from your kit that is a convenient length. This applies to the rest of the jumper wires as well.
    4. Use a jumper wire to connect hole J9 to hole J16.
    5. Use a jumper wire to connect hole A22 to the left-side ground bus.
    6. Insert one end of a long jumper wire into hole F22, and leave the other end unconnected. This forms the antenna for your transmitter.

Figure 3. Breadboard diagram for connecting the transformer, crystal oscillator, and jumper wires.
  1. Use your wire strippers to cut the 3.5 mm audio cable in half. It has three wires inside: left and right audio (with red and white insulation), and ground (uninsulated).
    1. Strip about 5 mm of insulation off the ends of the left and right audio wires.
    2. Tightly twist the strands of each individual wire together to form a bundle. This will make them stiffer and easier to push into the breadboard. If you have a soldering iron, you can tin the wires, which will also make them stiffer.

Figure 4. 3.5 mm audio cable with cut and stripped ends.
  1. Connect the 3.5 mm audio cable and the 4xAA battery holder to the breadboard, as shown in Figure 5.
    1. Plug the 3.5 mm cable's ground (uninsulated) wire into hole A9.
    2. Plug either the left or right audio wire (it does not matter which) into hole A5.
    3. Connect the battery pack's red wire to the left-side power bus.
    4. Connect the battery pack's black wire to the left-side ground bus.
    5. The breadboard of your completed circuit should look like the one in Figure 6 (remember that your jumper wires do not have to be the same color).

Figure 5. Breadboard diagram of the battery holder and 3.5 mm audio cable connected to the breadboard.

Figure 6. Photograph of the completed circuit on a breadboard. Note that in this picture, the ground and audio wires are switched between holes A5 and A9, but the circuit will still work this way.
  1. Plug the 3.5 mm cable into the output (headphone) jack of your audio-playing device. Your completed circuit should look like the one in Figure 7.

Figure 7. The completed AM radio transmitter circuit with a smartphone as a music source.

Experimenting with the Circuit

Now that you have built the circuit, here is the fun part—experimenting with it!

  1. Start playing music on your audio device and tune your AM radio to 1 MHz. Bring the transmitter antenna within an inch of your radio antenna (note: some radios might have a separate AM antenna inside the radio, separate from the FM antenna visible on the outside of the radio. Check your radio's instruction manual to find out). Can you hear the music that you are playing on the radio?
  2. Adjust the volume control of your audio device, is there any change in the quality of the sound you hear in your radio?
  3. Now tune your AM radio to a different frequency, say 700 kHz. Can you still hear your music?
  4. Tune your radio back to 1 MHz where you can hear your music. Optionally, if you purchased a second oscillator, remove the 1 MHz crystal oscillator and in its place put the 1.2288 MHz oscillator. Can you still hear your music?
  5. Without changing the oscillator back to 1 MHz, instead tune your radio now to 1.23 MHz. Can you hear your music?
  6. Until now you have kept your antenna within an inch of your radio antenna, now move your transmitter's antenna further away slowly and hear what happens. Does the quality of your sound improves or gets worse? Why?
  7. Rotate the radio receiver antenna relative to your transmitter's antenna (or vice versa). Does this affect the quality of the sound? Why?
  8. Try using a longer wire for the antenna. Does this affect the quality of the sound? Does this affect the broadcast range for your transmitter? Why?

Communicating Your Results: Start Planning Your Display Board

Create an award-winning display board with tips and design ideas from the experts at ArtSkills.


  • Try receiving the signal from your AM transmitter with a crystal radio that you build yourself. You can explore how the relative placement of the receiving and transmitting antennas affects signal strength at the receiver. To see how to build a crystal radio receiver, see the Science Buddies project Build Your Own Crystal Radio.
  • Try using a 9 V transistor radio battery instead of 4 AA batteries. What differences do you notice in the signal?
  • Advanced. If you have access to oscilloscope in school, try to see the signals coming out from the antenna with your music device turned OFF and then ON. Also connect the +6V of the battery directly to the oscillator bypassing the transformer and look at the signal. What difference or similarities do you see between these three signals?
  • Advanced. This is an extremely rudimentary transmitter and therefore the sound quality is not going to be good. However, you could add more blocks to the present circuit and make improvements. What could you possibly add to the present circuit so that you are able move your antenna further away from your radio and still hear the music? For a slightly more complex circuit, try the following link: Bowden, B., 2006. "Micro Power AM Broadcast Transmitter," Bowden's Hobby Circuits, retrieved August 1, 2011 from How does this circuit compare to the simpler one in the project? How does the broadcast range compare? Can you relate the difference in performance to the difference in the circuits?

Share your story with Science Buddies!

Yes,I Did This Project! Please log in (or create a free account) to let us know how things went.

Ask an Expert

The Ask an Expert Forum is intended to be a place where students can go to find answers to science questions that they have been unable to find using other resources. If you have specific questions about your science fair project or science fair, our team of volunteer scientists can help. Our Experts won't do the work for you, but they will make suggestions, offer guidance, and help you troubleshoot.

Ask an Expert

Related Links

If you like this project, you might enjoy exploring these related careers:

Radio Frequency Engineer

Radio frequency engineers help make sure that information gets from one place to another. This information is transmitted wirelessly as radio waves between electronic devices. Anything you can wirelessly send from one computer to another, listen to on the radio, download on a mobile phone, or see on the television (not connected to cable) is sent wirelessly using radio waves, and the transmission and devices were designed by a radio frequency engineer. Radio frequency engineers are typically electrical engineers who decided to specialize in radio frequency engineering. Read more

Sound Engineering Technician

Any time you hear music at a concert, a live speech, the police sirens in a TV show, or the six o'clock news you're hearing the work of a sound engineering technician. Sound engineering technicians operate machines and equipment to record, synchronize, mix, or reproduce music, voices, or sound effects in recording studios, sporting arenas, theater productions, or movie and video productions. Read more


Electricians are the people who bring electricity to our homes, schools, businesses, public spaces, and streets—lighting up our world, keeping the indoor temperature comfortable, and powering TVs, computers, and all sorts of machines that make life better. Electricians install and maintain the wiring and equipment that carries electricity, and they also fix electrical machines. Read more

Electrical & Electronics Engineer

Just as a potter forms clay, or a steel worker molds molten steel, electrical and electronics engineers gather and shape electricity and use it to make products that transmit power or transmit information. Electrical and electronics engineers may specialize in one of the millions of products that make or use electricity, like cell phones, electric motors, microwaves, medical instruments, airline navigation system, or handheld games. Read more

News Feed on This Topic

Note: A computerized matching algorithm suggests the above articles. It's not as smart as you are, and it may occasionally give humorous, ridiculous, or even annoying results! Learn more about the News Feed


, ,

Looking for more science fun?

Try one of our science activities for quick, anytime science explorations. The perfect thing to liven up a rainy day, school vacation, or moment of boredom.

Find an Activity

Thank you for your feedback!


A bibliography is a listing of the books, magazines, and Internet sources that you use in designing, carrying out, and understanding your science fair project. But, you develop a bibliography only after first preparing a background research plan — a road map of the research questions you need to answer. Before you compose your bibliography, you will need to develop your background research plan.

With your background research plan in hand, you will find sources of information that will help you with your science fair project. As you find this information it will be important for you to write down where the sources are from. You can use the Bibliography Worksheet to help you, just print out a few copies and take them with you to the library. As you find a source, write in all of the necessary information. This way, when you are typing your bibliography you won't need to go back to the library and find any missing information. The more information you write down about your source, the easier it will be for you to find if you want to read it again.

When you are writing your report, you will use the sources in your bibliography to remind you of different facts and background information you used for your science fair project. Each time you use some information from a source, you will need to cite the source that it came from. To cite a source, simply put the author's name and the date of the publication in parentheses (Author, date) in your text. If the person reading your report wants to find the information and read more about it, they can look up the reference in your bibliography for more detail about the source. That is why each source you use must be listed in a detailed bibliography with enough information for someone to go and find it by themselves.

Your bibliography should include a minimum of three written sources of information about your topic from books, encyclopedias, and periodicals. You may have additional information from the Web if appropriate.

Examples of Bibliography Formats

There are standards for documenting sources of information in research papers. Even though different journals may use a slightly different format for the bibliography, they all contain the same basic information. The most basic information that each reference should have is the author's name, the title, the date, and the source.

Different types of sources have different formatting in the bibliography. In American schools, the two most commonly used guidelines for this formatting are published by the MLA (Modern Language Association) and the APA (American Psychological Association).

The MLA guidelines call for the bibliography to be called Works Cited. Science Buddies has summarized some of the most common MLA formats for your use: MLA Format Examples.

The APA guidelines call for the bibliography to be called the Reference List. Science Buddies has summarized some of the most common APA formats for your use: APA Format Examples.

Your teacher will probably tell you which set of guidelines to use.

On the Science Buddies website we use the following guidelines:

  • APA format for online sources
  • MLA format for all other sources
  • APA (author, date, page) format for citations in our articles

Getting Started

Download and print the Science Buddies Bibliography Worksheet. Keep several copies with you and fill in the information as you do your research. When you are finished, type the information from the worksheet into a formatted bibliography using the examples listed above.

Sample Bibliographies

Sample Bibliography: MLA Works Cited Format
Sample Bibliography: APA Reference List Format

Bibliography Checklist

What Makes a Good Bibliography?For a Good Bibliography, You Should Answer "Yes" to Every Question
Have you included at least 3 sources of written information on your subject? (If you include Web pages, they should be in addition to the written sources.)Yes / No
Have you included complete information to identify each of your sources (author's name, the title, the date, and where it was published)?Yes / No
Have you used the proper format for each of your sources? Most teachers prefer the MLA or APA formats. Yes / No
Is your Bibliography in alphabetical order, by author's last name?Yes / No
Do you have sources of information to answer all of your research questions?Yes / No

One thought on “Am Radio Transmitter Science Buddies Bibliography

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *