Annotated Bibliography Authors Qualifications For Fha

WHAT IS AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY?

An annotated bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about 150 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited.


ANNOTATIONS VS. ABSTRACTS

Abstracts are the purely descriptive summaries often found at the beginning of scholarly journal articles or in periodical indexes. Annotations are descriptive and critical; they may describe the author's point of view, authority, or clarity and appropriateness of expression.


THE PROCESS

Creating an annotated bibliography calls for the application of a variety of intellectual skills: concise exposition, succinct analysis, and informed library research.

First, locate and record citations to books, periodicals, and documents that may contain useful information and ideas on your topic. Briefly examine and review the actual items. Then choose those works that provide a variety of perspectives on your topic.

Cite the book, article, or document using the appropriate style.

Write a concise annotation that summarizes the central theme and scope of the book or article. Include one or more sentences that (a) evaluate the authority or background of the author, (b) comment on the intended audience, (c) compare or contrast this work with another you have cited, or (d) explain how this work illuminates your bibliography topic.


CRITICALLY APPRAISING THE BOOK, ARTICLE, OR DOCUMENT

For guidance in critically appraising and analyzing the sources for your bibliography, see How to Critically Analyze Information Sources. For information on the author's background and views, ask at the reference desk for help finding appropriate biographical reference materials and book review sources.


CHOOSING THE CORRECT FORMAT FOR THE CITATIONS

Check with your instructor to find out which style is preferred for your class. Online citation guides for both the Modern Language Association (MLA) and the American Psychological Association (APA) styles are linked from the Library's Citation Management page.


SAMPLE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ENTRY FOR A JOURNAL ARTICLE

 

The following example uses APA style (Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, 2010) for the journal citation:

Waite, L. J., Goldschneider, F. K., & Witsberger, C. (1986). Nonfamily living and the erosion of traditional family orientations among young adults. American Sociological Review,51, 541-554.

The authors, researchers at the Rand Corporation and Brown University, use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Young Men to test their hypothesis that nonfamily living by young adults alters their attitudes, values, plans, and expectations, moving them away from their belief in traditional sex roles. They find their hypothesis strongly supported in young females, while the effects were fewer in studies of young males. Increasing the time away from parents before marrying increased individualism, self-sufficiency, and changes in attitudes about families. In contrast, an earlier study by Williams cited below shows no significant gender differences in sex role attitudes as a result of nonfamily living.

 

This example uses MLA style (MLA Handbook, 8th edition, 2016) for the journal citation:

Waite, Linda J., et al. "Nonfamily Living and the Erosion of Traditional Family Orientations Among Young Adults." American Sociological Review, vol. 51, no. 4, 1986, pp. 541-554.

The authors, researchers at the Rand Corporation and Brown University, use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Young Men to test their hypothesis that nonfamily living by young adults alters their attitudes, values, plans, and expectations, moving them away from their belief in traditional sex roles. They find their hypothesis strongly supported in young females, while the effects were fewer in studies of young males. Increasing the time away from parents before marrying increased individualism, self-sufficiency, and changes in attitudes about families. In contrast, an earlier study by Williams cited below shows no significant gender differences in sex role attitudes as a result of nonfamily living.

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

59A P P E N D I X A Annotated BibliographyAlabama Department of Transportation. Alabama Utilities Manual, 1999. www.dot.state.al.us/Bureau/Design/utilities/ Utilities%20Manual/utman.html (as of August 29, 2007). This manual provides rules and policies in regard to relocating, installing, and maintaining utilities within right-of-way (ROW) with as little interference to highway safety, operations, and maintenance as possible. The manual outlines general guide- lines and procedures, legal aspects, permits and agreements, planning and design, construction, and reimbursements. The purpose of this manual is to provide the utility company with guidelines on how to proceed with utility work within high- way ROWs without disrupting the highway operation. Alsop, S. R. Legal and Procedural Issues Related to Relocation Assistance: Supplementary Material. In Selected Studies in Highway Law, TRB, National Research Council, Washing- ton, D.C., Vol. 2, Nov. 1991, 13 pp. This article describes the effects of the Uniform Relocation Act (URA) amendments of 1987. The basic structure of the URA requires that “federal acquiring and/or displacing agen- cies comply with its provisions, and that state and local acquir- ing and/or displacing agencies give ‘satisfactory assurances’ that they will comply as a condition of receiving federal finan- cial assistance.” The URA grants FHWA lead agency author- ity to issue uniform government-wide federal regulations and protects businesses and individuals who are displaced due to construction projects. American Association of State Highway and Transporta- tion Officials. Utility Survey Responses on Recouping the Costs of Utility Delays from Utility Owners. AASHTO, Washington, D.C., 2003, 13 pp. This document includes survey responses from state depart- ments of transportation (DOTs) and FHWA regarding recoup- ing the costs of utility delays from utility owners and successful practices in assuring timely utility relocation. Best practices dis- cussed include: early coordination, annual meetings with util- ity companies (UCs), and the incorporation of utility relocation work into the construction contract.Anson, A. Timely Coordination of Utility Relocation for High- way Purposes. Proc., Fifth National Highway/Utility Confer- ence, Phoenix, Ariz., Oct. 1996, pp. 39–49. This presents a UC perspective on the utility coordination process in Vermont. Annette Anson, Manager of ROW for NYNEX, speaks about the relationship between the Vermont Agency of Transportation, NYNEX (a large telephone com- pany), and the electric companies (some large and some small) in the state. She discusses the regulations that provide the groundwork for the current utility relocation process, which allow the agency to purchase ROW for utility relocations. She then discusses the steps being taken (at the time of publication) to ensure effective coordination between UCs and the agency. Arcand, L., and H. Osman. Utilization of Subsurface Utility Engineering to Improve the Effectiveness of Utility Relo- cation and Coordination Efforts on Highway Projects in Ontario. Proc., Annual Conference of the Transportation Association of Canada, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Sept. 2006, 15 pp. This paper is a summary of two case studies in Ontario, Canada, where subsurface utility engineering (SUE) was used prior to utility relocation necessitated by highway construction proj- ects. The report estimates that SUE had a high return on invest- ment of approximately 2.5. Arizona Department of Transportation, Utility and Railroad Engineering Section, and W. R. Briscoe. Arizona Guide for Accommodating Utilities on Highway ROW, June 12, 1998, 104 pp. This manual describes policies for utility work done within the highway right-of-way by utility companies. The manual is sep- arated between policies for controlled access highways and policies for uncontrolled access highways. Policies are then broken down by utility type including electric lines, water and sewer lines, gas and product lines, telephone and television cable, and irrigation lines. Abandonment of utility facilities and general requirements are also outlined in this guide.

60Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department, Arkansas State Highway Commission. Arkansas Utility Accommodation Policy, http://www.arkansashighways.com/ ROW/Utility%20Accommodation%20Policy.pdf?Record_ Number=50 This manual provides utility companies with guidelines and procedures for installing, adjusting, relocating, and removing utility facilities within the highway right-of-way. This manual outlines policies for general considerations, underground util- ity installations, overhead utility installations, installations on highway structures, irrigation and drainage facilities, permit- ting procedures, and miscellaneous items. It also discusses procedures for obtaining reimbursements for utility reloca- tions and adjustments, cost estimates, and billing procedures. Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department. Special Provision: Utility Adjustments by Highway Con- tractor, http://www.arkansashighways.com/info/FOI/FOI RequestForm.asp?Record_Number=11 This provision allows the contractor on a highway project to remove, relocate, or adjust existing utilities himself or by sub- contracting the work out. This work is done under separate contracts. This provision lists requirements that the contrac- tor must complete. Baril, A., and S. Messager. New Approaches in the Management of Public Utilities in the Right-of-Way. Proc., Transportation Association of Canada Annual Conference, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Sept. 2006, 10 pp. This paper discusses the consultative and collaborative approach developed by the Ministry of Transportation of Quebec for relocating public utilities in the ROW. This approach supports business relationships between the Ministry of Transportation and UCs called “framework agreements.” These agreements also help to determine the allocation of project costs. Blair, J. S. Utility Relocations on Construction Projects— A Contractor’s Perspective. Proc., 89th Annual Purdue Road School, Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind., March 25, 2003, 6 pp. This paper provides a contractor’s perspective on the effect of utilities on construction projects including: the prebid prepa- ration process, the preconstruction phase, the utility conflicts during the construction phase, and the best practices for mit- igating utility conflicts. Brown, A. Utility Coordination Concepts on Highway Proj- ects. Proc., National Highway Utility Conference, Louisville, Ky., April 14, 2000, pp. 151–165. This is a bulleted presentation discussing the importance of early coordination with UCs. The presentation includes utility relocation elements (coordination, design, construction), coor-dination elements (predesign, design, preconstruction, con- struction), a case study presenting the delays associated with highway design impacts (estimated 110 days of delays), a dis- cussion of the coordination of plan phasing and utility design, and a design time frame. California Department of Transportation. Utility Relocation. In California’s ROW Manual, Ch. 13. July 2005, 350 pp. This manual describes policies and procedures for the coordi- nation of utility relocation during the construction of highway projects. It outlines requirements throughout each phase of a project. These include planning, design, liability determina- tion, certification, construction, and payment. It also outlines report of investigation, notice to owner, utility agreements, property rights conveyances, local public agency projects, non- project-related responsibilities, and federal aid procedures. Childs, W. Utility Consultant Coordinator. Proc., AASHTO/ FHWA Right-of-Way and Utilities Conference, Baltimore, Md., May 1, 2006, 3 pp. This presentation discusses the definition of a utility consul- tant coordinator. According to the presentation, it is someone who provides utility coordination and engineering design expertise. Key responsibilities of the utility consultant coordi- nator are outlined in this presentation. Chou, C., C. Caldas, and J. O’Connor. Developing a Group Decision-Support Model and System for Combined Trans- portation and Utility Construction. Proc., Applications of Advanced Technology in Transportation, 9th International Conference, Chicago, Ill., Nov. 14, 2006, 17 pp. This paper provides a general discussion of the combined trans- portation and utility construction approach and a decision- making framework determining when this approach should be utilized by state DOTs. Cisneros, L. Timely Coordination of Utility Relocation for Highway Purposes. Proc., Fifth National Highway/Utility Conference, Phoenix, Ariz., Oct. 1996, pp. 35–38. This presentation by Lester Cisneros, Railroads & Utilities Section Manager for the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department, discusses the problem of rural communities in New Mexico that do not have the tax base for generating the required finances to fund utility reloca- tions. The current system in New Mexico (at the time of the presentation) allows these communities to apply for finan- cial assistance from the state. Collins, J. Utility Issues. Proc., AASHTO/FHWA Right-of- Way Conference, New Orleans, La., July 2, 1997, pp. 84–85. This brief paper provides a description of the Louisiana Depart- ment of Transportation and Development’s (DOTD) process for utility relocation, including a description of DOTD’s rela- tionship with UCs.

61Colorado Department of Transportation. Highway Utility Manual, Jan. 2007. This manual outlines key administrative and accommodation standards used by the Colorado Department of Transporta- tion to regulate the accommodation of utilities within high- way ROWs. Utility coordination procedures are also identified in this document. The purpose of this manual is to provide guidelines in order to ensure accurate implementation of the DOT code. Cooper, J. Combining Transportation and Utility Construc- tion. Proc., AASHTO/FHWA Right-of-Way and Utilities Con- ference, Baltimore, Md., May 1, 2006, 3 pp. This presentation proposes a solution to avoiding long dura- tions for utility adjustments. The solution is called combined transportation utility construction and it allows the contrac- tor on the project to perform the necessary utility adjust- ments, providing that the contractor is qualified and obtains consent from utility companies. However, some limitations do exist. Cunliffe, R. W. Payments to Public Utilities for Relocation of Facilities in Highway ROW: Supplementary Material. In Selected Studies in Highway Law, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., Vol. 2, June 1988, 12 pp. This paper discusses court cases pertaining to the payment of public utilities to relocate from highway ROW. The discussion includes one case decided by the U.S. Supreme Court. The result of the Supreme Court decision was that a utility was not a “displaced person” and, therefore, was not entitled to federal reimbursement under the Relocation Act. If a state reimburses a UC, then that state may be entitled to reimbursement from federal funds. Delaware Department of Transportation. Utility Adjustments for Highway Construction. In Utilities Design Manual, http:// regulations.delaware.gov/AdminCode/title2/2000/2400/ 2401.shtml#TopOfPage, Ch. 4. This manual outlines procedures for coordinating utility adjust- ment work for highway construction projects. It describes pro- cedures for preconstruction and construction coordination. It also describes reimbursable and nonreimbursable work and payment for work. Florida Department of Transportation.Utilities Accommoda- tion Manual, Aug. 2004. This manual provides policies, criteria, and regulations regard- ing any utility work within the Florida DOT highway right-of- way. It describes obtaining utility permits, applying criteria, standards, specifications and policies, accommodation stan- dards, special requirements, maintenance of vegetation and traffic, general requirements, utility surveys, and criteria for limited and nonlimited access. This manual provides utility companies with Florida’s policies and procedures on this issue.Idaho Transportation Department. Control of Work. In Con- tract Administration Manual, Ch. 5, July 2007. This manual provides responsibilities of the engineer regard- ing control of work. It outlines the procedures to be followed by the engineer for utility adjustment on a project, including notice to proceed, preparation, construction, and postcon- struction phases. Indiana Department of Transportation. Utilities. In Design Manual, Ch. 10, Sept. 7, 2005. This manual describes utility procedures and provides utility coordination guidelines and a utility accommodation policy used by the Indiana Department of Transportation to regu- late accommodation of utilities within highway ROWs. It is intended for parties involved in the utility accommodation process, including utility owners and Department of Trans- portation employees. Jeong, H. S., D. M. Abraham, and J. J. Lew. Evaluation of an Emerging Market in Subsurface Utility Engineering. Jour- nal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol. 130, No. 2, 2004, pp. 225–234. This paper presents a comprehensive evaluation of SUE to facil- itate a better understanding of the emerging industry. The top- ics investigated include quality levels in SUE, incorporation of SUE strategy at different stages in the construction project, and a cost–benefit analysis of 71 actual construction projects where SUE was employed. This paper also includes the analysis of a questionnaire of state DOTs and members of the SUE industry. Johnson, C. Avoiding Utility Relocations. Proc., AASHTO/ FHWA Right-of-Way and Utilities Conference, Newport, R.I., May 2003, 3 pp. This presentation describes the FHWA manual that has been created to help highway designers avoid unnecessary utility relocations. To implement a system change, states should look at planning, design, construction, maintenance, and commu- nication. To implement an operational change, states must analyze using nontraditional designs or design alternatives, reward designers for avoiding utility relocations, and empha- size the value in it. Kansas Department of Transportation, Bureau of Construc- tion and Maintenance. KDOT Utilities Accommodation Policy, 2002, 91 pp. This manual provides policies and regulations for utility work done in highway ROWs. It outlines general policies, utilities on permitted highways, utilities on fully controlled access highways, and attachments to bridges and other structures. It is intended for utility owners. Kranc, S. C., and W. A. Miller. A Computer Model for Evaluat- ing Utility Placement in the Right-of-Way. Proc., AASHTO/ FHWA Right-of-Way and Utilities Conference, Newport, R.I., May 2003, 22 pp.

62This paper reports on a preliminary study for the Florida Depart- ment of Transportation to help determine the best placement of utility facilities during the planning stages for new trans- portation corridors and modification of corridors either by the addition of new facilities or relocation of existing facilities. The paper describes a model that considers minimum cover, clear- ance, and vertical and horizontal position, in order to minimize the sum of all utility location-dependent costs. Kranc, S. C., and W. A. Miller. Optimum Placement of Utilities Within FDOT R/W. Florida Department of Transportation and Federal Highway Administration, Dec. 2005, 101 pp. This paper develops a methodology to help identify the global optimum for the placement of utility facilities during the development stages for new transportation corridors and dur- ing planning for modification of corridors either by the addi- tion of new facilities or relocation of existing facilities. The global optimum is determined by minimizing present and future costs. Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development. Louisiana Administrative Code, Part II: Utilities, Dec. 2005. This manual provides standards for regulating the locations, design, installations, adjustments, accommodations, and main- tenance of utilities on highway ROWs. It is provided for repre- sentatives of the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development to regulate these standards. It outlines require- ments for applications, general considerations, standards of utility installation, and specific policies. Maine Department of Transportation.Utility Coordination Process. http://www.maine.gov/mdot/utilities/coordination/ utilitycoordinationprocess.php This guide outlines the utility coordination process, giving both general and specific descriptions. It also identifies respon- sibilities of the utility coordinator. Marti, M. M., K. L. Knutson, and J. Corkle. Utility Reloca- tion: A Communication and Coordination Process for Local Governments. Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul, Minn., June 2002, 40 pp. This document summarizes the results of a research imple- mentation study conducted by the Local Road Research Board aimed at defining the scope and range of problems regarding utility relocation and developing materials for use by Min- nesota’s local units of government in order to facilitate effi- cient utility relocation. Memory, R. Avoiding Utility Delays. Proc., AASHTO/FHWA Right-of-Way and Utilities Conference, Baltimore, Md., May 2006, 4 pp. This presentation provides guidelines for avoiding utility delays in highway construction. Early coordination, both internally and externally, implementing subsurface utility engineeringtechnology and ONE DOT, and becoming more proactive rather than reactive are suggestions for minimizing utility- related delays. Michigan Department of Transportation. Utilities. In Design Manual: Road Design, Ch. 9. http://mdotwas1.mdot.state. mi.us/public/design/englishroadmanual/ This manual outlines the utility relocation policy adopted by the state of Michigan for both private and municipal utility companies. It also provides design guidelines and utility coor- dination procedures for utility relocations. Minnesota Department of Transportation. Position Statement: Accommodation of Utilities on Highway Right-of-Way, Nov. 8, 2005, 61 pp. This document outlines the policies adopted by the state of Minnesota for accommodation of utilities within highway ROWs. Its purpose is to inform its reader of these policies in order to regulate utilities within these boundaries. Minnesota Department of Transportation. Utilities Manual, May 2007. This manual provides specific procedures and guidelines for the utility accommodation process. It outlines the roles and responsibilities of every party involved in the utility relocation process, provides relevant laws and regulations, and describes a step-by-step process to follow regarding the accommodation of utilities within highway ROWs. The purpose of the manual is to inform Department of Transportation employees on the utility coordination process. Minnesota Department of Transportation. Utility Relocation Study Report to the 2000 Minnesota Legislature. Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul, Minn., Feb. 2000, 65 pp. The 1999 Minnesota Legislature directed the Minnesota DOT (Mn/DOT) to study issues related to relocating or removing utility facilities from highway construction projects. Mn/DOT used a collaborative process with about 40 participants, includ- ing construction contractors, UCs, utility associations, local and state road authorities, and Gopher State One Call. Participants met four times to gain a mutual understanding of issues, poten- tial solutions, and barriers. Recommendations and implemen- tation strategies were then developed and discussed. Najafi, F. T., and J. Martin. Design-Build Approach for Utility Relocations in Highway Right-of-Way. Proc., 85th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., Jan. 2006, 14 pp. This report identifies states with design–build statutory author- ity and effective design–build techniques for utility relocation. A survey conducted as part of this paper identified 30 states with design–build authority and five states exhibiting extensive experience with design–build projects in highway corridors.

63The survey identified five common techniques and case studies from Florida and North Carolina that demonstrate that the design–build approach successfully relocated utilities in the highway right-of-way. Najafi, F. T., and J. Martin. Strategies for Utility Relocation in Highway Right-of-Way. Proc., 85th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., Jan. 2006, 15 pp. This paper summarizes the results of a survey conducted of state highway departments to identify emerging issues con- cerning utility relocations. The survey revealed that utility conflict and project delays in the right-of-way result from safety issues, uncooperative utilities, insufficient resources, inaccurate utility locations, and deliberation over reimburse- ment and general unit costs. Najafi, F. T., and L. Millman. A Survey of Utility Companies in Assessing Utility Relocation and Joint Use in Highway Right-of-Way. Proc., 85th Annual Meeting of the Transporta- tion Research Board, Washington, D.C., Jan. 2006, 14 pp. This paper presents a perspective of prevailing issues as iden- tified by the UCs with respect to relocation of utility poles, maintenance, liability and utility fees for joint usage, utility inspections, temporary utilities, advanced coordinating meet- ings, training and education, and exception policies that ben- efit the public. New York Department of Transportation. Extract. In New York Highway Design Manual, Ch. 13, June 6, 2003, 5 pp. This guide provides laws regarding time schedules for relo- cating utilities. It states that no utility can interfere or delay work on highway construction projects by not meeting pre- determined time schedules. It outlines all the laws regarding this issue. North Carolina Department of Transportation. Policies and Procedures for Accommodating Utilities on Highway Rights of Way, April 1, 1993. This document outlines policies adopted by the state of North Carolina for the accommodation of utilities in highway ROWs. The policies are separated by utility type, including utilities on freeways, pipelines, overhead power and communication lines, underground electric power and communication lines, plowed-in cable, and lighting. This manual is intended for use by Department of Transportation employees and utility com- panies involved in utility accommodation. O’Connor, J. T., G. E. Gibson, S. M. Hedemann, et al. Dura- tion Quantification and Opportunities for Improvements in TXDOT’s Utility Adjustment Process.Texas Department of Transportation, Austin, Tex., May 2006, 164 pp. This report documents an investigation of the Texas DOT’s util- ity adjustment process, the development of a model of the over- all process, and the identification of possible improvements in the utility adjustment process. In addition, the report quantifies the duration of utility adjustments on highway projects.Ohio Department of Transportation. Manual of Procedures— Utilities. http//www.dot.state.oh.us/divisions/local/projects/ documents/1pa%20manual/7/utilities.pdf This manual describes the procedure for relocating utilities on highway construction projects. It is intended for state utility coordinators and describes the steps that must be taken in order to coordinate utility relocation correctly and efficiently. Oregon Department of Transportation. Utility Guide and Procedures for Utility Relocation, April 17, 2006. This utility guide provides procedures to be followed in order to successfully coordinate utility work on highway construc- tion projects. It breaks down the procedures into the design and planning phases and is intended for state utility coordina- tors, project managers, and utility specialists. The guide also outlines procedures for utility relocation on federally funded local public agency projects and utility coordination services that should be provided by the contractor. Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Utility Reloca- tion. In Design Manual, Pt. 5, Oct. 2004. This document provides utility coordination and accommo- dation polices for utility relocation within highway ROWs. It specifically describes coordination policies during the design phase of a utility relocation project. Pickering, B. Alternative Approaches to Utility Relocation (Construction Contractor Claim Avoidance). Proc., AASHTO/ FHWA Right-of-Way Conference, New Orleans, La., May 14, 1997, pp. 79–83. This presentation (including text from the regulations) sum- marizes the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) utility relocation process. Remer, M. Minimizing Utility Delays. Proc., AASHTO/FHWA Right-of-Way and Utilities Conference, Baltimore, Md., May 1, 2006, 4 pp. This presentation lists several key concepts to help minimize utility delays. It describes the roles of state employees in the coordination process, some key aspects of the utility coor- dination process and their benefits, revisions made to the Minnesota Utility Manual and Utility Accommodation Policy that will benefit the process, other important initiatives, and utility coordination in design–build projects. South Carolina Department of Transportation. A Policy for Accommodating Utilities on Highway Rights-of-Way, Aug. 2005. This document outlines policies adopted by the state of South Carolina for the accommodation of utilities in highway ROWs. The policies are separated by utility type, including pipelines, overhead power and communication lines, under- ground electric power and communication lines, irrigation, drainage pipes, canals, and ditches. This document regulates the location, installation, and adjustment of utilities within highway ROWs.

64South Carolina Department of Transportation. Utility Involve- ment in South Carolina Design–Build Projects, 2007. This web page provides an overview of projects involving util- ities in South Carolina that utilize design–build and innova- tive financing concepts. South Carolina is one of the few DOTs that have included utilities in its design–build projects, such as the Conway Bypass and the Greenville Southern Connec- tor. The document provides lessons learned and a sample scope of work for design–build utilities. Stayer, K. The Katy Freeway Reconstruction Program— Managing Utilities. Proc., AASHTO/FHA Utilities Right- of-Way Conference, Austin, Tex., May 2005, 8 pp. This presentation describes the Katy Freeway Reconstruction Program, which is one of Texas’s largest highway construc- tion projects to date. There was a utility adjustment cost of $318.4 million dollars. A general engineering consultant (GEC) was hired for design and construction inspection, including utility coordination. Key aspects of the GEC’s roles and respon- sibilities are discussed further in this presentation. Stevens, R. L. Adding Value Through the Innovations of Sub- surface Utility Engineering (SUE). Proc., Society of Ameri- can Value Engineers Conference, Scottsdale, Ariz., June 2003,4 pp. This paper describes the technologies (geophysical prospect- ing, vacuum excavation techniques, computer mapping) that comprise SUE. In addition, this paper describes the three pri- mary components (designation, locating, and data manage- ment) of SUE, the four SUE data quality levels, and the reasons that SUE can save money for contractors. Tennessee Department of Transportation. Rules and Regula- tions for Accommodating Utilities Within Highway Rights- of-Way, Ch. 1680-6-1, Feb. 2003. This document outlines procedures to be followed regard- ing utility relocation, design, and installation within highway ROWs. This manual is intended for use by Department of Transportation employees and affected utility companies. Texas Department of Transportation. Utility Manual, July 2005, 238 pp. This manual describes procedures for coordinating utility relocation as well as procedures for performing this work. It describes rules and regulations regarding utility relocation and outlines procedures to be followed in the planning, design, and construction phases. It also describes cost and billing issues. Thomas, L. W. Payments to Public Utilities for Relocation of Facilities in Highway ROW. In Selected Studies in Highway Law, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., Vol. 2, Dec. 1980, 36 pp. This paper discusses whether the utility or the state must pay the cost of utility relocations required because of highway construction or improvements. The paper has three primaryfindings: 1) the state covers the cost if the utility is located on ROW owned by the UC, 2) the UC covers the cost if the util- ity is located within the state-owned ROW (majority of situa- tions), and 3) the state can be reimbursed by federal funds for utility relocations in certain situations. Thorne, J., D. Turner, and J. Lindly. Highway/Utility Guide: Final Report, Federal Highway Administration, Washing- ton, D.C., June 1993, 312 pp. This report is a comprehensive history of how federal, state, and local activities in ROW and regulation of the ROW have evolved. U.S. Federal Highway Administration. Cost Savings on High- way Projects Utilizing Subsurface Utility Engineering, FHWA, Washington, D.C., Dec. 1999, 16 pp. This is a Purdue University study of 71 projects from Virginia, North Carolina, Texas, and Ohio on the costs savings for state DOTs that routinely utilize SUE while producing contract drawings. U.S. Federal Highway Administration, European Right-of- Way and Utilities Best Practices: Chapter Five: Utilities Relo- cation and Accommodation, FHWA, Washington, D.C., Aug. 2002, pp. 17–25. This document presents the findings by FHWA regarding util- ity practices in European countries. This document identifies and describes seven worthwhile utility practices concerning cooperation, coordination, and communication; underground utilities; utility corridors; recognizing pipelines as a mode of transportation; avoiding unnecessary utility relocations; utili- ties in design–build contracts; and master utility agreements. U.S. Federal Highway Administration. Program Guide: Utility Relocation and Accommodation on Federal-Aid Highway Projects, FHWA, Washington, D.C., Jan. 2003, 100 pp. This program guide was developed by the FHWA for use by individuals implementing federal aid highway programs that used federal highway funds for the relocation and adjustment of utility facilities and the accommodation of utility facilities and private lines on federal aid highway ROW. The document clearly defines what is eligible for federal compensation and to what extent. In addition, the document defers to state defini- tions in many instances. U.S. Federal Highway Administration. Summary of Interna- tional Scanning Program for Right of Way and Utilities, FHWA, Washington, D.C., March 2000, 8 pp. This report is a summary of a European scanning tour con- ducted by FHWA and state DOTs to review and document pro- cedures and best practices in several European countries for the major functional work areas involved in highway ROW and utilities processes. The goal of the tour was to discover methods that may improve the utility relocation process in the United States.

65U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO). Transportation Infra- structure: Impacts of Utility Relocations on Highway and Bridge Projects, GAO, Washington, D.C., June 9, 1999, 35 pp. The Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21) directed the GAO to assess the impact that delays in relocating utilities are having on the delivery and cost of federal aid high- way and bridge projects. This report documents the GAO’s findings. Utah Department of Transportation. Accommodation of Util- ities and the Control and Protection of State Highway Rights of Way, Administrative Rule R930-6, 2003, 98 pp. This manual outlines policies and procedures to be followed for construction of utility facilities within highway ROWs. It outlines ROW uses, utility permits, and installation require- ments. It is intended for utility owners and contractors. Washington State Department of Transportation, Environ- mental and Engineering Service Center, Design Office. Util- ity Accommodation Policy, M 22-86, April 2002, 60 pp. This manual describes procedures to be followed for utility adjustments within highway ROWs. It is intended for utility owners. Washington State Department of Transportation. Project Utility Coordination Process. http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/ Publications/Manuals/M22-87.htm This is a flowchart describing procedures to efficiently facil- itate utility coordination. It outlines each phase of a project and where the responsibilities lie, as well as what the respon- sibilities are. Weldon, K. E. Development of Improved Strategies for Avoid- ing Utility Related Delays During FDOT Highway Construc- tion Projects—Appendix M: State of the Utilities, Florida Department of Transportation, July 2003. This document describes current and future utility issues applied nationwide and compares practices with those of the Florida Department of Transportation. The document addresses construction delays, relocation practices and incen- tives, reimbursement practices, new standards of practice, new technology and research, and cooperation. West Virginia Division of Highways. Accommodation of Utili- ties on Highway Right of Way and Adjustment and Relocation of Utility Facilities on Highway Projects, Dec. 2003, 78 pp. This manual outlines policies and regulations for accommo- dating utilities in highway ROWs and adjusting and relocat- ing utility facilities. It breaks down the policies by utility type, including television cables, pipelines, electrical and communication lines, highway structures, and scenic enhance- ment. It also outlines the planning and coordination process required.Williams, R. L. Expediting Utility Adjustments on Highway Projects. Right of Way, Vol. 33, No. 1, 1986, pp. 16–18. This document outlines the main contributors to utility con- flicts. Ronald Williams, utilities engineer for the West Virginia Department of Highways, describes causes of delays associated with utility relocations and adjustments. Wisconsin Department of Transportation. Administrative Code, Chapter Trans 220: Utility Facilities Relocation, Aug. 1996. This manual provides procedures for utility coordination and avoiding utility conflicts and delays. It is intended for state utility coordinators, project managers, and utility owners. Wisconsin Department of Transportation. Guide to Utility Coordination, State Statute 84.063, Jan. 5, 2000. This guide provides procedures to follow in order to success- fully facilitate the relocation and adjustment of utility facili- ties. It is very similar to the Wisconsin Administrative Code described above. Wisconsin Department of Transportation. Utility Accommo- dation Policy, March 1, 2005. This manual provides policies and procedures to be followed by any utility that occupies any DOT highway ROW. It details all the requirements for making utility adjustments, installing or removing utilities, or relocating utilities. It is intended for utility owners. Zembillas, N. M. Subsurface Utility Engineering: A Technology-Driven Process That Results in Increased Safety, Fewer Claims, and Lower Costs. New Pipeline Technologies, Security and Safety. Proc., ASCE Interna- tional Conference on Pipeline Engineering and Construction, Baltimore, Md., July 2003, pp. 1422–1428. This paper describes SUE as a combination of civil engineer- ing, surveying, geophysics, nondestructive excavation, and other technologies that provides accurate mapping of under- ground utilities in three dimensions. The use of SUE during the early design phase can result in increased safety, fewer claims, and lower construction costs. It also places the risk of erroneous utility location information firmly on the sub- surface utility engineer. Zembillas, N. M., and B. J. Beyer. Proactive Utilities Manage- ment: Conflict Analysis and Subsurface Utility Engineering. Proc., Pipelines 2004: What’s on the Horizon?, San Diego, Calif., Aug. 2004, 6 pp. This document provides a general overview of the potential of SUE in conflict analysis. Nicholas Zembillas, Senior Vice Pres- ident of the TBE Group, and Bryan Beyer of Louisiana State University discuss the connection between SUE and conflict analysis and the potential for savings.

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