Paper Airplane Research Paper

Paper Airplanes

Paper Airplanes projects are excellent “hands-on” applications of different notions and theories regarding the aircraft flight. If you already have some knowledge about the real planes design now is the time to put them in practice. If you are a beginner, it’s a good moment to ignite your child interest for aeronautics and to set the base for further studies.

Working with paper airplanes will give your child the chance to explore, design, redesign and even do independent study. If he is artistically talented, he will be excited to decorate the plane (avoid water based paints). You can organize this project in many ways and use the following information according to your child age and familiarity with the aerodynamics.


The use of paper airplanes is believed to have originated 2,000 years ago in China . The earliest known date of the creation of modern paper planes was said to have been in 1909. However, the most accepted version of the creation was two decades later in 1930 by Jack Northrop (Co-founder of Lockheed Corporation).

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Design of paper models is an attractive pursuit, as design of wings and other surfaces can be completely in-scale by tracing flight surfaces with precision. Further, CAD software can be used in plotting the shapes of wings, tail planes and other components for easy reproduction of parts for assembly.

With care, it is even possible to color in a model airframe before construction commences, or print patterns upon it during the process of reproduction.

How Paper airplanes fly?

When a plane flies, he moves through the air. In the absence of the air, the flight of an aircraft it is impossible to be controlled. The layer of air that surrounds the earth is called the atmosphere and is composed of 78.09 percent nitrogen,20.05 percent oxygen, 0.93 percent argon and 0.03 percent other gases. Air contains also water vapors and it is in a constant motion due to the differences in temperature between different places on earth. 

Imagine that we live on a bottom of an ocean of air where the pressure decreases with altitude. The air has weight, which is expressed as pressure. The higher up in the “ocean” you go, the less air you have on top of you (low pressure).

There is a direct relation between the air properties and the wing design that you have to consider when you build a plane. There are four forces that act on a plane in flight:

  • Thrust: the force, which pushes the plane forward through the air.
  • Drag: the resistance the air exerts on the forward motion of a plane (drag oppose thrust)
  • Weight: it pulls the plane down because the force of gravity
  • Lift: the upward force that counteracts gravity and keeps the plain in the air.

For additional information and suggested experiments about some of the principles involved in flight check this link. 

When you will design your plane think about all this forces. Basically your plane will glide through the air so one of the most important things you will have to consider is the shape of the wings. A good wing shape will provide a high lift/drag ratio, which is the same as the glide ratio (the distance a plane will glide divided by its altitude).

The weight of a plane divided by the surface area of the main wing is called the wing loading. Planes with high wing loads glide faster and have a high rate of descent than planes with low wing loads, which are good gliders. For example, the winning plane in the duration aloft category from the 1st International Paper Airplane Contest was essentially a sheet of paper folded in half.

Paper Planes experiments

Besides learning about paper airplanes and building them you can also do some simple experiments.The easiest is to build different models and see which one will fly further and which one will glide longer.Talk with the science teacher and organize a little contest at school.If you need more ideas and information about paper planes I recommend the excellent site of Ken Blackburn He currently holds a Guinness Book of World Record for time aloft for paper airplanes (27.6 seconds).

Here is video tutorial that will help you build Ken Blackburn winning plane:

If you don`t know what paper airplane to use in your experiments,I will suggest to do a simple search on Google. You will find many web sites that offer great plans and with folding instructions so I will not waste you time here.Experiment with different designs and compare the results.

The new world record for the longest flight (27.9 sec) of an paper airplane was set by Taku Toda.,a Japanese engineer. The design measured 10 cm from tip to tail and it’s made of a single sheet of folded paper with no cuts.

The flight took place at a competition in Hiroshima Prefecture in April and and it was confirmed by Guinness World Records.

Mr.Toda is the head of the Japan Origami Airplane Association and his interest in paper airplanes started 30 years ago while is was in convalescence after a climbing accident while at university.He founded his association in 1980 and he managed to convince the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency to invest 90 million yen(around 756,000 US dollars) in a three-year study of the feasibility of launching paper darts from the International Space Station back to Earth.The darts are expected to return in about a week and this experiment might provide new data about aerodynamics and the use of ultra-light materials in the design of spacecrafts.

Return from Paper Airplanes to Aviation for Kids


Less than $5.00

Safety Issues


Material Availability

Readily available

Approximate Time Required to Complete the Project

One to two hours to make the paper airplanes and collect the data; one day to prepare the science fair display.

To understand forces that cause paper airplanes to fly and determine which type of paper airplane flies the farthest.

  • Directions for making paper airplanes
  • Paper
  • Tape
  • Masking tape
  • Measuring tape
  • Calculator

Four forces are at work to make an airplane fly: weight, lift, thrust, and drag. Weight pulls the airplane down. Lift pulls the airplane up. Thrust moves the airplane forward. Drag pulls the airplane back. The same concepts that allow a commercial airplane to fly, cause a paper airplane to fly.

In this investigation, weight, lift, thrust, and drag are considered in an effort to determine which paper airplane flies the farthest.


weight:gravitational force; the force that causes an aircraft to go down

lift: the force that causes an aircraft to lift

thrust: the force that causes an aircraft to move forward

drag: the force that causes an aircraft to pull back


Weight, lift, thrust, and drag affect the flight of airplanes as well as paper airplanes.

Research Questions
  • What makes paper airplanes fly?
  • Does changing the way a paper airplane is folded, have an affect on the distance it flies?
  1. Locate directions for making three different types of paper airplanes. Some suggested resources are provided in the bibliography.
  2. Gather the necessary materials.
  3. Fold the three different paper airplanes according to the directions?
  4. Determine an indoor location such as a gymnasium or auditorium to fly the planes. Flying the planes inside will keep the wind from being a factor.
  5. Use masking tape to mark a starting point on the floor.
  6. Throw each plane four times. Measure the distance each plane flew and record the distances. Use a calculator to add the distances each airplane flew and divide by four to find the average distance.

Blackburn, Ken and Jeff Lammers. The World Record Paper Airplane Book. New York: Workman Publishing, 1994.


“Alex’s Paper Airplanes” at

“Learn How to Make 10 Great Paper Airplane Designs with Free, Easy-to-Follow Animated Instructions!” at

“The Science of Flight” at


“Flight” at

“The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Aerial Age” at Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum website at

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