Massassignmentsecurity Error

Mass assignment security shouldn't happen in the model

Mass assignment security is a feature in Active Model (and therefore Active Record) which allows you to be selective about what input you will accept when ‘mass assigning’ a hash of attributes.

Typically, you will have a form that submits to a controller action, which simply assigns all the form parameters to the model:

Any keys in which are not allowed (e.g. an ‘admin’ flag) will be silently discarded.

Problems

This is great, of course, because nobody wants to get hacked. However if you have been writing Rails applications for long enough you will come up against some problems:

  1. Creating records in tests. Often when testing models, you will want to create a model with a given set of attributes, and then interact with it in the actual test. The quickest way to do this might be

    but if you have the attribute protected, it won’t work. Worse, you won’t know it hasn’t worked: the attribute is just silently ignored.

    There are some ways around this:

    • The most popular ‘object factory’ plugins will ignore mass assignment security when creating an object from a factory.
    • Recently a feature has been added in edge Rails to raise an exception in the development and test environments when mass assignment parameters are filtered. This will not be available until Rails 3.2, and you will need to set in your environment config to enable this.

    (In general, this problem is better described as ‘interacting with records somewhere other than a controller’.)

  2. Different rules for different people. Often there are different ‘roles’ for users in an application. For example, an ordinary user should be able to change her password, but not promote herself to an admin. However, an admin should be able to promote another user to be an admin.

    This has historically caused problems with mass assignment security, so in Rails 3.1 (not yet released), there is a mechanism for specifying ‘mass assignment roles’.

    Essentially, you can specify different lists of allowed attributes, and give them a name. Then, when an admin user is editing a user, you can use their ‘list’ via the option:

  3. Active Record has to work around mass assignment security internally. This isn’t so much an end user problem, but in the past few months I have fixed some very nuanced bugs within Active Record. These bugs were either caused by mass assignment security kicking in where we didn’t want it to, or by subtle mistakes in the logic when we tried to work around the mass assignment security. (If you’re interested, see the discussion in thesebugs and thesecommits.)

Put it in the controller

Mass assignment security is a feature that is aimed at dealing with form input. By placing it in the model, we end up making the implicit assumption that all ‘normal’ interaction with the model happens via a HTTP request. This assumption is incorrect and causes problems.

I believe that the filtering should happen in the controller, which is the area of the application which is supposed to deal with HTTP input. Here’s a rough sketch of how it might work:

Why this is better

  • We can do away with having ‘roles’ for mass assignment security; you can simply define different filters in your and your .
  • When outside the controller, we can use models normally, without having to worry about security features that don’t apply to the current situation.
  • It’s totally customisable on a per-controller or even per-action basis.

What do you think?

I am not the first to make these observations. Merb had a plugin to do this, and a similar plugin has been written for Rails.

But mass assignment security is one of the first things a new Rails user learns, and it’s a feature that is present in almost every single Rails application. So personally I would love to see this changed in Rails core itself.

Of course, it’s not that simple because we have to think about backwards compatibility, and it could be quite annoying for Rails users to have to move the filtering rules out of their model and into the controller.

So I am not sure whether this is really worth changing, but I would like to hear your thoughts!

14 August 2011

Early in 2012, a developer, named Egor Homakov, took advantage of a security hole at Github (a Rails app) to gain commit access to the Rails project.

His intent was mostly to point out a common security issue with many Rails apps that results from a feature, known as mass assignment (and did so rather loudly). In this article, we'll review what mass assignment is, how it can be a problem, and what you can do about it in your own applications.


What is Mass Assignment?

To begin, let's first take a look at what mass assignment means, and why it exists. By way of an example, imagine that we have the following class in our application:

# Assume the following fields: [:id, :first, :last, :email] class User < ActiveRecord::Base end

Mass assignment allows us to set a bunch of attributes at once:

attrs = {:first => "John", :last => "Doe", :email => "john.doe@example.com"} user = User.new(attrs) user.first #=> "John" user.last #=> "Doe" user.email #=> "john.doe@example.com"

Without the convenience of mass assignment, we'd have to write an assignment statement for each attribute to achieve the same result. Here's an example:

attrs = {:first => "John", :last => "Doe", :email => "john.doe@example.com"} user = User.new user.first = attrs[:first] user.last = attrs[:last] user.email = attrs[:email] user.first #=> "John" user.last #=> "Doe" user.email #=> "john.doe@example.com"

Obviously, this can get tedious and painful; so we bow at the feet of laziness and say, yes yes, mass assignment is a good thing.


The (Potential) Problem With Mass Assignment

One problem with sharp tools is that you can cut yourself with them.

But wait! One problem with sharp tools is that you can cut yourself with them. Mass assignment is no exception to this rule.

Suppose now that our little imaginary application has acquired the ability to fire missiles. As we don't want the world to turn to ash, we add a boolean permission field to the model to decide who can fire missiles.

class AddCanFireMissilesFlagToUsers < ActiveRecord::Migration def change add_column :users, :can_fire_missiles, :boolean, :default => false end end

Let's also assume that we have a way for users to edit their contact information: this might be a form somewhere that is accessible to the user with text fields for the user's first name, last name, and email address.

Our friend John Doe decides to change his name and update his email account. When he submits the form, the browser will issue a request similar to the following:

PUT http://missileapp.com/users/42?user[first]=NewJohn&user[email]=john.doe@newemail.com

The action within the might look something like:

def update user = User.find(params[:id]) if user.update_attributes(params[:user]) # Mass assignment! redirect_to home_path else render :edit end end

Given our example request, the hash will look similar to:

{:id => 42, :user => {:first => "NewJohn", :email => "john.doe@newemail.com"} # :id - parsed by the router # :user - parsed from the incoming querystring

Now let's say that NewJohn gets a little sneaky. You don't necessarily need a browser to issue an HTTP request, so he writes a script that issues the following request:

PUT http://missileapp.com/users/42?user[can_fire_missiles]=true

Fields, like , , and , are quite easily guessable.

When this request hits our action, the call will see , and give NewJohn the ability to fire missiles! Woe has become us.

This is exactly how Egor Homakov gave himself commit access to the Rails project. Because Rails is so convention-heavy, fields like , , and are quite easily guessable. Further, if there aren't protections in place, you can gain access to things that you're not supposed to be able to touch.


How to Deal With Mass Assignment

So how do we protect ourselves from wanton mass assignment? How do we prevent the NewJohns of the world from firing our missiles with reckless abandon?

Luckily, Rails provides a couple tools to manage the issue: and .

: The BlackList

Using , you can specify which fields may never be mass-ly assignable:

class User < ActiveRecord::Base attr_protected :can_fire_missiles end

Now, any attempt to mass-assign the attribute will fail.

: The WhiteList

The problem with is that it's too easy to forget to add a newly implemented field to the list.

This is where comes in. As you might have guessed, it's the opposite of : only list the attributes that you want to be mass-assignable.

As such, we can switch our class to this approach:

class User < ActiveRecord::Base attr_accessible :first, :last, :email end

Here, we're explicitly listing out what can be mass-assigned. Everything else will be disallowed. The advantage here is that if we, say, add an flag to the model, it will automatically be safe from mass-assignment.

As a general rule, you should prefer to , as it helps you err on the side of caution.

Mass Assignment Roles

Rails 3.1 introduced the concept of mass-assignment "roles". The idea is that you can specify different and lists for different situations.

class User < ActiveRecord::Base attr_accessible :first, :last, :email # :default role attr_accessible :can_fire_missiles, :as => :admin # :admin role end user = User.new({:can_fire_missiles => true}) # uses the :default role user.can_fire_missiles #=> false user2 = User.new({:can_fire_missiles => true}, :as => :admin) user.can_fire_missiles #=> true

Application-wide Configuration

You can control mass assignment behavior in your application by editing the setting within the file.

If set to , mass assignment protection will only be activated for the models where you specify an or list.

If set to , mass assignment will be impossible for all models unless they specify an or list. Please note that this option is enabled by default from Rails 3.2.3 forward.

Strictness

Beginning with Rails 3.2, there is additionally a configuration option to control the strictness of mass assignment protection: .

If set to , it will raise an any time that your application attempts to mass-assign something it shouldn't. You'll need to handle these errors explicitly. As of v3.2, this option is set for you in the development and test environments (but not production), presumably to help you track down where mass-assignment issues might be.

If not set, it will handle mass-assignment protection silently - meaning that it will only set the attributes it's supposed to, but won't raise an error.


Rails 4 Strong Parameters: A Different Approach

Mass assignment security is really about handling untrusted input.

The Homakov Incident initiated a conversation around mass assignment protection in the Rails community (and onward to other languages, as well); an interesting question was raised: does mass assignment security belong in the model layer?

Some applications have complex authorization requirements. Trying to handle all special cases in the model layer can begin to feel clunky and over-complicated, especially if you find yourself plastering all over the place.

A key insight here is that mass assignment security is really about handling untrusted input. As a Rails application receives user input in the controller layer, developers began wondering whether it might be better to deal with the issue there instead of ActiveRecord models.

The result of this discussion is the Strong Parameters gem, available for use with Rails 3, and a default in the upcoming Rails 4 release.

Assuming that our missile application is bult on Rails 3, here's how we might update it for use with the stong parameters gem:

Add the gem

Add the following line to the Gemfile:

gem strong_parameters

Turn off model-based mass assignment protection

Within :

config.active_record.whitelist_attributes = false

Tell the models about it

class User < ActiveRecord::Base include ActiveModel::ForbiddenAttributesProtection end

Update the controllers

class UsersController < ApplicationController def update user = User.find(params[:id]) if user.update_attributes(user_params) # see below redirect_to home_path else render :edit end end private # Require that :user be a key in the params Hash, # and only accept :first, :last, and :email attributes def user_params params.require(:user).permit(:first, :last, :email) end end

Now, if you attempt something like , you'll get an error in your application. You must first call on the hash with the keys that are allowed for a specific action.

The advantage to this approach is that you must be explicit about which input you accept at the point that you're dealing with the input.

Note: If this was a Rails 4 app, the controller code is all we'd need; the strong parameters functionality will be baked in by default. As a result, you won't need the include in the model or the separate gem in the Gemfile.


Wrapping Up

Mass assignment can be an incredibly useful feature when writing Rails code. In fact, it's nearly impossible to write reasonable Rails code without it. Unfortunately, mindless mass assignment is also fraught with peril.

Hopefully, you're now equipped with the necessary tools to navigate safely in the mass assignment waters. Here's to fewer missiles!

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