Argument Maps Improve Critical Thinking By Charles Twardy Tank

Country of originPoland
Entered service1990s
Crew3 men
Dimensions and weight
Weight45.3 t
Length (gun forward)9.53 m
Hull length 6.86 m
Width 3.59 m
Height2.19 m
Armament
Main gun125 mm smoothbore
Machine guns1 x 7.62 mm, 1 x 12.7 mm
Elevation range- 6 to + 13 degrees
Traverse range360 degrees
Ammunition load
Main gun42 rounds
Machine guns2 000 x 7.62, 300 x 12.7
Mobility
EngineS-12U diesel engine
Engine power850 hp
Maximum road speed60 km/h
Range480 km
Maneuverability
Gradient60%
Side slope50%
Vertical step0.85 m
Trench2.8 m
Fording1.4 m
Fording (with preparation)5 m

 

   The PT-91 Twardy (hard) is an improved variant of the Soviet T-72 main battle tank. The PT-91 was developed in Poland in the early 1990s. Production of the PT-91 Twardy tanks for the Polish Army were completed in 2002. A total of 233 tanks were delivered. Currently Polish Army also operates 120 older T-72M1 tanks (plus 470 in storage) and a number of ex-German Leopard 2A4 and Leopard 2A5 tanks. The older Leopard 2A4 tanks are planed to be upgraded to Leopard 2PL standard.

   In 2002 Germany donated to Poland a number of Leopard 2A4 tanks from the German Army stocks. Some former units equipped with Twardy, are now equipped with the Leopard 2A4 and 2A5 tanks. In turn units formerly equipped with the T-72M1 tanks are now equipped with the Twardy. It is planned that PT-91 Twardy tanks will be operational until 2030.

   Twardy's protection is enhanced by utilizing indigenously developed ERAWA explosive reactive armor blocks. There is a total of 394 ERAWA blocks covering front of the hull and the turret. These blocks are placed virtually without gaps to each other. It is worth mentioning that explosive reactive armor blocks on the Soviet of the Cold War era usually have 15 mm gaps or even more, thus reducing overall protection. Tests shown that ERAWA blocks improve tank's protection by 30-70% depending on the ammunition type used. However armor of the PT-91 can not withstand modern Western 120 mm tank gun ammunition fired from 2 000 m range.

   The PT-91 Twardy is armed with a 125 mm main gun, which is similar to that, used on the T-72. The gun is fitted with an autoloader. The PT-91 Twardy has new gun stabilization system and new fire control system. Other systems and sights have also been improved.

   Secondary armament consists of coaxial 7.62 mm machine gun and roof mounted 12.7 mm machine gun.

   Vehicle has a crew of three, including commander, gunner and driver.

   The PT-91 has more powerful engine, comparing with the T-72. It is fitted with the S-12U diesel engine, developing 850 horsepower. There was also developed a S-1000 turbocharged diesel engine, developing 1 000 horsepower.

   A comparison test was made in Poland in order to compare reliability of the Polish PT-91 and Leopard 2A4 tanks. It appeared that tanks with similar mileage (19 000 km) showed different results. Distance between failures of the PT-91 was only 25 km and it took on average 3.2 days to repair the tank. On the other hand distance between failures of the Leopard 2A4 tank was 174 km and it took on average 1.3 days to repair the tank. Most failures of the PT-91 Twardy were related to its engine, electrical installation, armament, fire control system, and communication systems. So the ageing PT-91 tanks can be seen as rather unreliable combat vehicles, that are troublesome to keep in operational order.

 

Variants

 

   PT-91A main battle tank, fitted with the S-1000 engine, developing 1 000 hp.

   PT-91A1 command tank.

   PT-91M Pendekar export version supplied to Malaysia. This MBT is fitted with improved 125 mm gun, S-1000 engine, new hydropneumatic transmission, French fire control system, new communication system and some other changes.

   PT-94 Goryl, further development of the PT-91 Twardy. This program was cancelled due to funding problems.

   Krab 155-mm self-propelled howitzer. A small number of these artillery systems are in service with the Polish Army.

   Loara self-propelled anti-aircraft gun.

   WZT-3M armored recovery vehicle.

   WZT-4 armored recovery vehicle for Malaysian Army, based on the PT-91M tank.

   MID armored engineering vehicle.

   PMC-90 armored bridgelayer.

   UPG-NG special tracked chassis. It uses many components of the PT-91. It was designed for Krab self-propelled howitzer. A prototype was completed in 2001. Low-rate production commenced in 2008, but was later stopped.

   PT-16 main battle tank. It is an upgraded version of the PT-91/T-72 main battle tanks. It was first publicly revealed in 2016. This tank is armed with a 120 mm smoothbore gun, which is compatible with all standard NATO ammunition. Add-on composite armor kit was fitted to the hull and turret. This tank is fitted with modern fire control system. It is proposed with a choice of three engines, developing from 1 000 to 1 200 hp. The PT-16 is proposed as a low-cost upgrade, which would significantly improve capabilities of the ageing Polish tanks.

 

Video of the PT-91 Twardy main battle tank

 

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  • Vote Satisfies Bonn
  • A Seat in Arab League Is Sought by Kuwait
  • LABORITES REJECT WAR OVER QUEMOY; British Opposition Proposes Peiping Seat in U. N. -Assails Policy of U. S.
  • CURATOR FOUND DEAD; Yonkers Police Say He Used Antique Pistol in Death
  • LAST OF MARINES EMBARK IN BEIRUT; U. S. Soldiers in Lebanon Also Believed Preparing for Quick Departure
  • BURMESE LEFTISTS SCORE ARMY COUP; Communist Front Speakers Tie Action to the U. S. -- Life in Capital Normal
  • HUNGARY OUSTS ARTISTS; Mass Purge Said to Include Singers and Dancers
  • U.S. GETS HUNGRAY DATA; Lodge Receives Report About Conditions in Country
  • HERTER QUESTIONS QUEMOY DEFENSE; Calls Offshore Islands Not Strategically Defensible -- Talks to Guard Parley
  • Allies Assured by Briton
  • POLISH RIOT IS CRUSHED; Police Use Gas at a Cracow Shrine Church Disavowed
  • KISHI REAFFIRMS TIE OF JAPAN AND U. S.
  • 5,000 Shells Fired at Quemoy
  • German Metal Jobs Drop
  • Norway to Get Nikes in 1959
  • CHIANG SAYS REDS ARE 'CHECKMATED'; Defense of Quemoy Blocks Their Drive to Swallow Asia, He Asserts
  • Dulles Said to Stress Peace
  • SCHOOL REOPENING URGED IN NORFOLK; Ministers and Pupil Group Press for Action After Closings by Almond ...
  • Nixon Stresses Economic Issue In First Speech of 'Uphill' Fight; NIXON STRESSES ECONOMIC ISSUE
  • RED CHINA PREDICTS RECORD CROP FOR '58
  • INDONESIA BACKS RED CHINA IN U. N.; Suggests Another 'Bandung Conference' to Settle the Taiwan Problem
  • Little Rock School Board Will Obey Court's Order; WILL OBEY COURT INJUNCTION
  • U. N. CHIEF TO CITE TROOP PROMISES; Hammarskjold to Say Today U. S. and Britain Pledge Mideast Withdrawals ...
  • Front Page 3 -- No Title
  • LOWER BENCH BANS FAUBUS PLAN; LEASING BLOCKED Little Rock Ordered Not to Shift Schools to Private Group ...
  • Gov. Folsom Saves Negro From Chair; GOV. FOLSOM SAVES NEGRO FROM CHAIR
  • Front Page 2 -- No Title
  • SUPREME COURT FORBIDS EVASION OR FORCE TO BALK INTEGRATION;; 9 WRITE OPINION It Goes Far Beyond Little ...
  • TV DRIVE OPENED BY ROCKEFELLER; In First State-Wide Program He Says Harriman Fails to Stimulate Business ...
  • PARIS CUTS TIES TO FRENCH GUINEA AFTER 'NO' VOTE; De Gaulle Acts Speedily to Set West African Area Free ...
  • Washington to Give Sudan $19,500,000; U. S. TO GIVE SUDAN $19,500,000 IN AID
  • U.S. OPPOSES SHIFT OF WARSAW TALKS TO U.N. AT PRESENT; Officials Say Government Is in No Hurry to Change ...
  • WARSAW LOOKING FOR CLUE TO TALKS; U.S. and Red China Resume Meeting on Crisis Today WARSAW LOOKING FOR ...
  • Front Page 1 -- No Title
  • AUTO RACER KILLED; Reece Hits Fence on Turn at Jersey State Fair
  • C.B.S. WILL REPORT ON L.I. GHOST HOME; ' House of Flying Objects' Is Planned for TV Oct. 29 -- 'Masquerade ...
  • CITY SCHOOLS PLEAD FOR GIFTS OF TV SETS
  • LEUKEMIA DRIVE OPENS; 9,000 Aides in Brooklyn and Queens to Seek Funds
  • Taped Touchdowns
  • Documentary Film on 'Ward Boss'; Russell of Cleveland on Sevareid Show
  • Menjou in 'Target'
  • GRAIN RATES LEAD CHARTER MARKET; Coal Shipments Hold Even at Low Levels, While Tanker Business Remains Dull
  • Tax Changes to Be Studied
  • Work Starts on Chinese Liner
  • U. S. BOARD TO GET SUBSIDY DISPUTE; States Marine to Present Its Case Tomorrow for Aid on 4 Steamship Routes
  • SHIFT IN OPERATION REGISTERED BY FUND
  • Cruise Liner Will Make Her Maiden Stop in Albany
  • 1,601 LICENSES REVOKED; State Also Suspended 2,915 for August Offenses
  • IDLEWILD POSTS ARRIVAL BOARD; Big Display Panel to Flash Flight Facts Electronically for the Waiting Public
  • NEW SHIP DUE HERE; 13,350-Ton Hoegh Vessel Is Expected Tomorrow
  • 200 IN UNION STRIKE AT CITY YOUTH HOUSE
  • BUILDING IN AUGUST RISES 23% OVER '57
  • OFFICE BUILDING ON 6TH AVE. SOLD; Sockol and Adler Buy Corner Structure -- 3 Properties on 75th St. Bought
  • MUNICIPAL LOANS
  • PURSER AGENCY RENTS IN 40TH ST.; Space at 355 Lexington Ave. Is Leased From Rudin -- Other Transactions
  • Buitoni Plans Stock Increase
  • MEDICAL CENTER BOUGHT; Norfolk Building Taken Over by New York Investor
  • Wichita Building Bought
  • A Renting Executive Is Named by Tishman
  • Sheraton Appoints Aide
  • Aircraft Parts Maker Elects
  • MOVES ARE MIXED IN GRAIN FUTURES; Wheat 3 1/8 Cents Up to 1/4 Down for Week -- Taiwan Crisis Is a Factor
  • Canadian Growers of Christmas Trees Are Warned They Must Lift Standards
  • IMPORTS OF OIL EXCEED QUOTAS; Average for August Above Allocations for First Time in 11 Months
  • Railroad Elects Director
  • MARKET ADVANCE HALTS IN LONDON; Industrial Stocks Decline After Reaching a New High for the Year
  • 1-YEAR MATURITIES ARE $75,611,245,847
  • Texas Eastern Elects A New Vice President
  • L. I. Lighting Will Purchase Gas Directly From Source in Texas
  • FARM EQUIPMENT GAINS; This Year's Volume Will Top '57 Level, Official Says
  • Sheraton Offering Ends Today
  • Economic Conclusions; An Analysis of the Dissimilar Reactions Reached From the Same Statistical Data
  • Dutch Paying Off World Fund Loan; Reserve Set Aside
  • RISE IN EARNINGS POSTED BY AVCO; 9 Months' Net at 80 Cents a Share, Against 66 -- Sales Show Drop
  • TEXTRON OBTAINS OPTICAL COMPANY; Philadelphia and Reading Sells Shuron -- Price Put at $5,000,000
  • F. P. C. Authorizations Listed
  • MEAT IMPORTS RISE; First Half's Total Double '57 Level -Record Forecast
  • Flooring Supply Plant Is Planned
  • Article 17 -- No Title
  • Cotton Farmers' Income May Rise 17% In 1958, Agricuture Department Says
  • TREND IS LACKING ON COTTON BOARD; Futures 10 Points Up to 25 Off Last Week -- Far Contracts Down
  • OIL UNION RE-ELECTS; Convention Rejects Call for Balloting by All Members
  • POWER SHIFT UPSTATE; 3 More Communities to Get St. Lawrence Energy
  • Texas Co. Elects Aide
  • Municipal Financing to Dip
  • Brooks Bros. Plans Branch
  • Advertising: Benton & Bowles Buys a London Agency
  • Oil Association Parley Set
  • Foreign Exchange Rates; Week Ended Sept. 26, 1958
  • FRENCH MAP EXPANSION; Output Rise to 18,500,000 Tons Is Planned for 1961
  • STEEL SURGE SEEN THROUGH OCTOBER; Optimistic Reports Indicate the Production Rate Could Reach 80% of Capacity
  • Article 13 -- No Title
  • Article 14 -- No Title
  • Article 16 -- No Title
  • Xavier Beats Don Bosco
  • Cigal's Sloop Triumphs
  • Italian Soccer Results
  • MT. ST. MICHAEL DOWNED BY 28-12; Bronx Team Loses Opener to Holy Cross of Flushing -- Fordham Prep Victor
  • Article 12 -- No Title
  • Montclair Immaculate Wins
  • Article 15 -- No Title
  • ELLIS-MRS. MASON WIN; Beat Thomas-Mrs. Ramsey in Golf Final, 6 and 4
  • Article 10 -- No Title
  • BONACORSA HORSE SCORES AT SHOW; Continental Lady Wins Open Jumper Title at Long Island Junior Event
  • Do-It-Yourself Betting: Feeling's Still Mutuel; Unattended Amteller Accepts Money but Won't Pick 'em
  • Soviet Downs Hungary, 3-1
  • Miss Doern Tennis Winner
  • Van Eyck Takes Tennis Final
  • Army and Oklahoma Puzzle Defenses; CADETS, SOONERS REVAMP ATTACKS
  • Article 11 -- No Title
  • School Football Today
  • Baldini First in Bicycle Race
  • BROWNS NIP RAMS ON KICK, 30 TO 27; Groza's 9-Yard Field Goal With 25 Seconds Remaining Decides Before 69,993
  • 49ers Beat Steelers, 23-20
  • REDSKINS VICTORS OVER EAGLES, 24-14; Two 4th-Period Drives Led by LeBaron Overcome Philadelphians' Lead
  • Article 9 -- No Title
  • Galimore Scores 3 Touchdowns As Bears Down Packers, 34 -- 20; Brown's Passes Play Major Role for Chicago ...
  • FORSY THE FIRST IN RUN; Takes Six-Mile Handicap Test at Van Cortlandt Park
  • St. Benedict's Eleven on Top
  • Crutchfield's Beaujeu Regal Is Best at Westbury Kennel Fixture; POODLE TRIUMPHS IN HIS 5TH SHOW
  • 70,000 See Dublin Win Football Final, 18-12
  • Giants Finish Higher, Happier; Every Fan a Friend
  • Spegasso Is Racing Victor
  • Wildfire Longchamps Victor
  • GIANTS DOWN CARDS IN COAST FINALE, 7-2
  • Article 8 -- No Title
  • Quantico Beats Xavier, 31-20
  • Long Island 210 Skippers Win
  • Colts Register Twice in Last Period to Beat Lions Before Crowd of 48,377; BERRY STANDS OUT IN 28-15 TRIUMPH
  • Article 7 -- No Title
  • BONNIER AUTO VICTOR; Swede Takes $5,000 Race at Watkins Glen in Maserati
  • Article 6 -- No Title
  • Williams Takes Batting Title as Red Sox Win;; SLUGGER'S HOMER MARKS 6-4 GAME
  • Ranger Sextet Bows, 4-3
  • SEYMOUR SCORES AGAIN; Takes Resolute Class Race in Manhasset Bay Regatta
  • Article 5 -- No Title
  • Article 4 -- No Title
  • Dodgers Find Gold Near Cellar;; No Pleasure in Profit
  • BOAT DRIVER HURT AFTER RECORD RUN
  • REDLEGS TRIUMPH OVER BRAVES, 4-0; 41,364 at Milwaukee Finale See Kellner, Lawrence Hold Losers to 4 Hits
  • Ashburn Tops National Hitters; PHILLIES' PLAYER FINISHES AT .3495
  • Question-Mark Series; Braves Rated Over Yanks on Offense, But Slumps Have Plagued Both Clubs
  • Article 3 -- No Title
  • Football Giants Open League Season by Overpowering Cardinals at Buffalo; 3 GIFFORD SCORES PACE 37-7 VICTORY
  • Article 2 -- No Title
  • INDIANS BEAT TIGERS AND TAKE 4TH-PLACE
  • Home Work; Quilts Can Be Used to Brighten Beds
  • YANKEES CONQUER ORIOLES BY 7-0, 6-3; Larsen and Sturdivant Hurl in Tune-Ups for Series and Are Listed ...
  • COY AUTO RACE VICTOR; Takes 25-Lap Event in Midget Program at Polo Grounds
  • Sports of The Times; List of Distinction
  • Ecuadorian Textiles Put on View at U.N.
  • New Performers Listed.
  • Seven Year Itch' to Be Given
  • Of Local Origin
  • GABLE SIGNS PACT WITH PARAMOUNT; Actor to Make Two Films at Studio in '59-'60 -- Dean Martin Sought for Role
  • Spare Time Can Be Put To Good Use
  • Navy Schedules Tests For Officer Applicants
  • Illusion of Depth Marks Bonnets
  • Olives Can Play Big Role In Many Everyday Dishes
  • Food: Healthy Produce; Broccoli and Brussels Sprouts, Plentiful in the Fall, Are Good Source of Vitamins
  • Ballet Tickets on Sale TodayI
  • Miss Judith Getzofi Wed to Daniel Spritzer
  • Gloria F. Reeder Betrothed To David Wallace Fleming
  • SARAH KATZ OFFERS PIANO RECITAL HERE
  • Mrs. Loberg Has Daughter
  • The Screen; Last of the Nomads' Shows Laplanders
  • EUGENE BRICE OFFERS TOWN HALL RECITAL
  • Reibel--Goldberger
  • Vitale---Griufin
  • Mrs. McCulloch Has Child
  • Jazz: 'Blues in Subway'; Levister Work Performed in 'Village' Is Marred by Amplifying System
  • Faith S. Rahmer, Sweet Briar '54, Wed in Cathedral; She Is Bride in Garden City o[ Robert Van WFck Croker Jr.
  • Return of Hit Drama Planned
  • -Sue P. osenberg Bride Of Thomas Weinstock
  • Alexander--Diamond
  • Gerber--Rubin
  • Visiting Nurse Service Here to Gain; Anniversary Will Be Marked at Oct. 7 Benefit Dinner
  • Phyllis Brown Wed I-Iere to a Physician
  • Harold W. Sands, Importer, Fiance Of Elizabeth Post; Head of Firm Here to Marry Graduate of Bennett in Spring
  • Irene Riaboff, Richard Gachot Married on L. I.; Graduates of Vassar and Yale Are Wed in Sea Cliff Church
  • Miss Ellen Brett, [ VassarGraduate, Becomes a Bride; Vqed in Ceremony Here to Benjamin G. Aibel, Alumnus ...
  • Borde and Troupe; Pearl Primus Is Guest Artist This Week at St. Mark's Playhouse in 'Village'
  • Malcolm Atterbury Gets Part
  • Dramatic Sketches Based on Spirituals Offered by Folk Company at Town Hall
  • PETER PAN HUSHES UNRULY CHILDREN; Mary Martin Opens 61-City Tour by Winning Audience Bored With 'Cinderella'
  • JOEY ALFIDI, AGE 9, LEADS ORCHESTRA; Conducts Symphony of Air at Carnegie Hall Benefit for Italian Charities
  • A SATIRIC MUSICAL LISTED FOR SPRING; Gore Vidal Will Do Book of 'Follow That Fellow' -- London Hit Acquired
  • Claude Bessy Seen With Ballet Theatre
  • Playhouse Opens Wednesday
  • Edward II' Revival Planned
  • JANE HAMILTON SINGS; Soprano Offers Program at Carnegie Recital Hall
  • 3 in Helicopter Crash Named
  • POLAR STUDY BASE SET AT DARTMOUTH; College May Become Chief Center of Western World for Research in Field
  • AMBULANCE DRIVE OPENED IN EASTON; Connecticut Town Seeking $7,000 to Replace an 11-Year-Old Vehicle
  • POLICE WOMEN HAILED; President Cites 'Vital Role' in Letter to Association
  • Boys' Fire Patrol Helps L. I. Village Control Hazards
  • Parent-Teacher Month Set
  • Filter Cigarette Linked To Increase in Smoking
  • 2 in Balloon Escape 7 Shots by a Sniper; End Test Run Safely
  • MOUNT HOLYOKE OPENS; ' Uncommon Woman' Said to Be Major Aim to College
  • TRAFFIC SIGNALS CAN COUNT NOW; ' Thinking' Electronic Lights in Use Here, With Radio System Slated Soon
  • MODERN MUSEUM TO REOPEN OCT. 8; $850,000 Reconstruction and Fireproofing Work Is Mostly Behind Scenes
  • ! WILLIAM H. EUSTICE DIESI; I Had Served Plymouth, Conn.,I [ 27. ,Years as Seleotman J
  • NEW DARTMOUTH UNIT; Tucker Foundation to Open in Convocation Nov. 13-17
  • HARVEY SCHATZKIN
  • PROF. JOHN E. LANSING
  • Obituary 1 -- No Title
  • CENTRAL'S TRACKS OFFERED TO CITY; Railroad Would Cede Its Special-Taxed Facilities and Then Rent Them
  • STANLEY L. REMLEIN
  • MARVIN B. MORRISON
  • HEART TELEVISED BY X-RAY DEVICE; Company Says Physicians Can Watch Its Functions on a 8-Inch Screen
  • JOHN H. WHITNEY
  • EDWARD PICKARD, TEXTILE OFFICIAL; Retired U. S. Division Chie( ,DiesHad Been Secretary 'of Research Institute
  • CHARLES E. JOHNSON JR.
  • .=.s. MAu.,c_E A_ADo. 7oI; Retired Designer of Women'sJ Clothes Here Is Dead I /
  • CHARLES A. COLLINS, I BOSTON B ANR, 8S}
  • WILLIAM A. MILLER
  • BERTRAM HOPEMAN, A SHIPBUILDER HERE
  • EDWARD A. FLYNN
  • IRA A. LURIE
  • FRANCIS FAIRMAN JR.
  • GEORGE A. SATTLER
  • BRICE ANDER6ON
  • Plaint of a Pedestrian
  • LEO KOCIALKOWSKI
  • LEON VICTOR TIGER
  • PLANES AND RADIO PREDICTED IN 1858; Letter Written on Opening of Atlantic Cable Found in Washington Suburb
  • Governor's Stand on Primaries
  • EDWIN BETTS, 65 EDIJOATOR, IS DEAD; Professor of Biology at U. of Virginia WasAuthority I on Jefferson Gardens
  • jAs ooD DIES;I HEADED STEPHENSI; President of Junior College,I
  • DR. A. VEDEL TAANING
  • General Persons Takes Over
  • The Burmese Paradox
  • What the Fire Records Show
  • Topics
  • Handicrafts From Vietnam
  • Mr. Nixon's Complaint
  • Heckling at City Hall
  • Choosing Federal Judiciary; Stand of Bar Association Outlined in Adoption of Resolution
  • Taiwan Plebiscite Asked; Our Present Policy on China Said to Border on Absurd
  • Foreign Affairs; Curbing the Bulls in the China Shop
  • Fire Destroys Beach Hotel
  • ALTAR PIECE STOLEN; Belgium Asks Interpol's Aid in Theft From Convent
  • Perspective on Integration
  • RED CROSS SEEKS 500; Volunteers Needed for Duty at Chapter Units in City
  • Tax Ranking
  • GUARD ASSOCIATION BIDS FOR STABILITY
  • Books of The Times
  • AUTOPSY ON EX-ACTRESS; Chemical Analysis Slated in Death of Mrs. Mankiewicz
  • Books and Authors
  • I.L.O. Decries Poor Nurse Pay
  • Britain
  • PRESIDENT OPENS FUND CAMPAIGNS; Makes Radio and TV Appeal for Contributions to All Community Drives
  • New Zealand
  • Ireland
  • Australia
  • 905 ACRES RAZED WITH TITLE I AID; Moses Notes That Clearance of Slums Made Room for 65,000 Apartments Here
  • About New York; Professional Laugher Finds Life Is Not as Funny as Jokes He's Paid to Cheer
  • France
  • Clubs to Get Tax Refunds
  • Nuclear Test Postponed
  • NARCOTICS ASSAILED; Sing Sing Chaplain Urges Death for Peddlers
  • HARRINGTON URGES TIE WITH RED CHINA
  • Nevada
  • 250th Year of Trinity School Is Marked By Bishop Boynton at Church Service
  • POPE BLESSES WORLD; In Radio Broadcast, He Cites Its Desire for Peace
  • Puerto Rico
  • Affable New Englander; Fred Clark Scribner Jr.

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