The way in which technology (advancements in global travel and communication) enabled the 2007 Male’ bombing is paralleled by the rise of foreign fighters travelling to Syria/Iraq in order to fight for IS; in particular their sophisticated global propaganda campaign which makes full use of new media and the internet. Furthermore, despite the physical proximity, the distance in social space that would exist between foreign fighters and local “enemies” (non-Muslims and Muslims belonging to other sects such as the Shiites) compared to locals fighting amongst themselves would be much greater. This may also perhaps explain the extreme levels of violence displayed by foreign fighters towards locals and other “enemies” compared to what was occurring when the conflict was largely a civil war involving local rebel factions and the government (Al Arabiya English 2014) (The Guardian 2014) (The Washington Post 2014).
Despite all this, the same technologies which are responsible for enabling such acts of terrorism may eventually be the cause of its eventual sociological death (Black 2004 p.24). The growth of communication technologies and global transport have significantly reduced to physical and social distances between groups of people that have been historically separated from one another leading to the recognition of self-hood amongst people that previously regarded one another as the proverbial “other”. Black states (2004. p.22) that this amplified contact between such people will increase global intimacy, cultural homogeneity, and other forms of human closeness; concluding that technology thus makes terrorism easier and deadlier in the short term, but in the long term it destroys the social geometry on which terrorism depends. Turk (2004 p.285), meanwhile is more conservative in his conclusion and states that whether or not such “cosmic wars” can result in anything other than the mutually assured destruction of all or at least some involved parties remains to be seen. I personally agree with Black’s views, as “terrorists” themselves only appear to represent a minority of the human population – their global presence largely exaggerated due to the culture of fear that dominates the fourth estate; with the majority of peoples busily occupied with the process of understanding one another in this new era of global communication – further reducing the social distance and sense of “otherness” required for the majority of terrorist acts to occur.
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Essay No. 01
Recent serial bomb blasts in Mumbai brought the issue of terrorism on centre stage again. Terrorism has not become a worldwide phenomenon. Terrorism means an armed violent movement directed against government as well as non government targets, involving pre-meditated attacks with arms, ammunition and explosives against civilians, and resorting to intimidation tactics such as hostage taking and hijacking.
Terrorism can also be defined as an organized way of intimidation and violence especially for political purpose. Political frustration, political necessities, religious and racial fanaticism and personal political interests are some of the main causes of terrorism.
Since independence. India has been facing the problem of terrorism in different parts of the country. India has faced exclusively terrorist movements in Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir, bordering Pakistan, terrorist movements in the northeast, bordering Myanmar and Bangladesh; in Bihar, bordering Nepal; and in certain interior states like Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh ad Orissa that do not have international borders.
Indian terrorist groups have external links with like-minded terrorist groups in other countries. The link between the Marxist groups of Indian with Maoist groups of Nepal, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh; the link between the indigenous Kashmir organizations with the religious, fundamentalist and jihadi organizations of Pakistan; the link between organizations such as the Students Islamic Movement of India with jihadi elements in Pakistan and Saudi Arabia; and the link between the Pakistani pen Islamic jihadi organizations operating in India with AI-Qaeda and the Taliban are well known.
India has to fight its own with the terrorism being funded and encouraged by the neighboring countries. How can we expect that USA or Britain will feel the pinch of Terrorists attack in India? To look for support from either of them would be a folly. Just like any other country, we have to empower ourselves, we have to tackle our problems in our own always. Terrorism has to be dealt firmly with determined efforts and indomitable political will with the full and all out support of all political parties and every citizen.
Essay No. 2
Terrorism is a system of frightening people, to make them do what the terrorists want. Senator Denton has called it ‘’the most widely practiced form of modern warfare”. These activities of terrorism are both fashionable and criminal actions. The motives behind terrorism may be personal or political. Whatever the motives of the terrorists may be, they affect National Integration.
Terrorism is derived from the word “Terror” which means “extreme fear”. The persons who make atmosphere of extreme fear among masses are called terrorists. Such type of activities is called terrorism. The aim of a terrorist is to spread terror among people. They kill those persons or officials who oppose their evil deeds. Thus they create an atmosphere of terror to suit their designs.
Today, terrorism is a world-wide problem ranging from aircraft hijacking, planting of bombs in air craft’s, brutal killing of opponents and innocent people by the terrorists are heard every day from far and near. It is often seen that terrorist groups whether in India or Sri Lanka or elsewhere in the world, receive money, weapons and training from other foreign countries. These terrorists have unlimited access to sophisticated weapons. They believe that the highest form of revolutionary terrorism should utilize the most advanced science and technology.
In India, terrorism struck in the recent past in one form or another, especially in Punjab, Assam, Darjeeling and other States. Now recently it began showing teeth in Kashmir also. These people are directly being sponsored by a neighbouring country. It has put the people in extreme difficulties wherever the menace has erupted. The newspapers are filled with reports of violence, murder, explosion, shooting. In these terrorist activities hundreds of innocent men and women are killed. Many official building are either destroyed or burn to ashes, for no reason. Today it looks uncertain how long this lust for blood will continue. But it is rather obvious that these people have no other reason for the terrorist activities than creating menace among the people.
Terrorism is the main problem of our country this time. Steps should be taken to tackle the situation peacefully. The people involved in it are mostly our own people, our own blood. They have some misconceptions and misunderstandings. These can be solved by getting them on the negotiation table.
Several steps are now taken all over the world to control these activities like establishment of anti-terrorist forces to battle terrorism. The countries like Britain, Russia, and Germany have their own anti-terrorist forces. India has also established such forces to fight to terrorism. The police and sundry Para military forces have been present in certain areas of the country where violence is at worst. India has not taken steps to check the terrorism in her own country but also helped her neighbouring countries like Sri Lanka to fight them.
Essay No. 03
Terrorism is perhaps the most hated word in the modern age. It is particularly an anathema to those who have had personal experience of its diabolical dimensions.
Of late, terrorism has become a world-wide phenomenon. India had been telling the world of the large-scale destruction being caused to life and property in Kashmir by the Pakistan sponsored terrorists. 011 But most of the western world had turned a blind eye to India’s pleadings. The west, particularly the USA, realized its taste when the (WTC) towers 0 in America were leveled down through explosions caused by the sudden attacks by striking aeroplanes on them on 9th September, 2001 (9/11). Thus, the 9/11 event opened the eyes of the world.
As a result of this 9/11 incident, America took up the task of defending the world and getting it rid of the scourge of terrorism. Accordingly the American President in collaboration with the U.K Prime Minister Tony Blair drew up a road map of controlling and eliminating terrorism. A number of terrorist organisations, Al Qaeda ill-being the most conspicuous among them, were banned. A number of countries were declared as the Axis of Evil. Afghanistan was attacked and the regime of the Taliban was brought to an end. But the most wanted terrorist, Osama Bin Laden could not be killed or captured.
Later, America attacked Iraq declaring that the country possessed Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), although it’s dictatorial President Saddam Hussein denied it all along. The war was won. Later, two sons of Saddam Hussein were killed, though the President himself went underground. But, later in a December 2003, he was captured i dramatic manner in a hole under the earth.
In Kashmir, the terrorists have been playing have for about two decades. Thousands of terrorists themselves, members of security forces and innocent citizens, including men and women have been killed Indian Parliament had to face a terrorist attack on 13th December 2001. Fortunately, the Parliament which was in session was saved but a number of security guards lost their lives.
Terrorism had its heyday in Punjab in the 1980s and in early 1990s. In Andhra Pradesh we have Marxist terrorists (People’s War Group PWG). In Assam and some other eastern State we have ULFA, Bodo and other terrorists. In December 2003 there was a crack-down on ULFA terrorists in Bhutan who operated against India from that land In order to overcome the menace of terrorism, all the States in India and all the countries in the world should join hands to form a concerted coordinated policy.